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The Lee Family Digital Archive is the largest online source for primary source materials concerning the Lee family of Virginia. It contains published and unpublished items, some well known to historians, others that are rare or have never before been put online. We are always looking for new letters, diaries, and books to add to our website. Do you have a rare item that you would like to donate or share with us? If so, please contact our editor, Colin Woodward, at  (804) 493-1940, about how you can contribute to this historic project.


 

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Near Appomattox CtH.                       12 Apl ‘65

Honble J.C. Breckinridge

Secy of War

Sir

It was apparent during the past winter that reinforcements were continuously reaching the armies under Genl Grant in front of Richmond, & that every preparation was being made for the early prosecution of hostilities, which were suspended during intervals of inclement weather. Supplies of provisions, forage & ammunition were accumulated, & every opportunity siezed [sic] to extend their lines, & gain positions to interrupt R R communications with the south. The ranks of the army of N. Virga on the contrary were diminishing, Supplies were scarce & irregularly furnished. The horses of the arty were sent into the interior, & the cavy was dispersed, in order to be subsisted. The army extended over a line of more than 30 miles, from the swamps of the chickahominy to the waters of Rowanly creek, could neither be advanced in discipline or instruction. In the latter part of march it was evident that Genl Grant was ready to move. His troops were kept [illegible] provided with cooked provisions, his wagon trains packed, & the bulk of his army massed on his left. By the 21st of march Genl Sherman had united at Goldsborough N.C. his army with those of Genls Schofield & Terry. Genl Sheridan meeting with little opposition, in consequence of the dispersion of

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the troops in the Valley district for want of provisions & forage, had marched from Winchester through Staunton, Charlottesville & Hanover to join the armies on James river. With the view of ascertaining more accurately the disposition of the Federal troops, & preventing their withdrawal from their entrenchments. Genl Gordon occupying the lines in front of Petersburg was directed on the 24 March to carry by assault their position at Haus Hill & sweep their entrenchments right & left as far as practicable. About 4 Am on the 25th a storming party from the 2nd Corps, composed principally of its sharpshooters, accompd by an Arty Compy of Col: H. P. Jones1 command carried the works for a distance of 400 or 500 yds on each side of the salient & turned the guns upon their lines.2 The supporting forces formed from the divisions of the 2nd Corps under their appropriate Commanders, & reinforced by two brigades of B. R. Johnsons3 division under Brigr. Genl M. Ransom,4 drove the enemy from that portion of his mainline, but were unable to get possession of the enclosed redoubts in rear which Commanded it, & upon which depended the Success of the attack. These redoubts being speedily reinforced & heavy reserves of Infy & arty arriving, Genl Gordon was withdrawn about 8 am to his entrenchments. sixteen pieces of arty & 500 prisoners were captured. The former Could not be brought off, & our loss in Killed, wounded & prisoners probably exceeded that of the enemy. The intentions of Genl Grant no longer admitting of doubt, the arty & Cavy were directed to reassemble. Genl Rosser,5 collecting his division in Hanover, was ordered south of James river. Genl Fitz Lee who had a portion

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of his Command on the chickahominy, recd Similar orders, & Genl Wm F. Lee was moved from stoney creek depot, to the vicinity of Dinwiddie CtHouse. None of these divisions were fully organized or equiped [sic]. The men hastily called from their homes, their horses feeble & they poorly armed, were unprepared for immediate service. On the 29th march the Federal army began to move. A heavy force of Cavy Infy & Arty crossed Hatchers run by the Vaughan, stage & other roads below Armstrongs mill, advanced towards the Boydton road & extended towards Dinwiddie CtHouse. That night a demonstration was made on our lines in front of Petersburg. The fire of arty & musketry though almost incessant was comparatively harmless. Our position south of Hatchers run was reinforced during the 29th by withdrawing troops from other portions of the line, & skirmishers were advanced to develop the plans of the enemy. Genl Fitz Lee who had reached Sutherlands depot that evg, was directed to advance towards Dinwiddie CtH, take Command of all the cavy & protect the S. S. R Road. On the 30th he encountered at Five Forks, the intersection of the white oak & Ford roads the Federal Cavy moving to that point, & arrested its progress. at night he was joined by Wm F. Lee & Rosser. Knowing that the Cavy under Genl Fitz Lee was too inferior in point of numbers to be able to contend successfully with that under Genl Sheridan, Genl Pickett who had marched from chesterfield & taken position on the right, was detached on the 31st with three of his brigades & two of B. R. Johnsons to his support, with orders to drive Genl Sheridan back. 2 [Pickett advancing moved by the scotts bridge road, preceded by Wm F Lee. Rosser struck sheridans flank about noon on that day & drove him

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within half a mile of Dinwiddie. 1 [Fitz Lee with his division under Mumford [sic],6 advancing by the direct road]. Night put an end to the Contest. To aid Pickett in his attack, Genl R. H. Anderson7 was directed that morg to advance against the enemy’s left, which was apparently maneuvering to get possession of the white oak road. Drawing out Huntons8 & the remaining two of B. R. Johnson’s brigades, he gallantly charged the 5th Fedral Corps as it advanced & drove it back towards the Boydton Plank road, to the shelter of its entrenchments. Here meeting fresh troops his advance was checked & he withdrew his troops out of range of the heavy Arty fire, from the enemy’s works. The 5th Corps again advanced in front, while another division of the 2nd corps on its right attacked anderson’s left flank, & he was forced back to his original position on the white oak road. On the morng of the 1st of april, Genl Warren with the 5th Corps moved by Gravelly run church against Picketts left flank, but he being apprised of his advance, returned to his position at Five Forks, holding Wm F Lee on his right. FitzLee’s division under Mumford [sic] on his left, & placing Rosser in reserve in his rear. At 4 P.M. he was attacked by Genl sheridan with his four divisions of Cavy & the three divisions of Infy of the 5th Corps [whose united strength exceeded 25000 men, while Picketts force of all arms, did not exceed 7000] defeated & driven towards Fords depot on the S. S. Railroad. upon ascertaining that Genl Warren had marched to the aid of Genl Sheridan & learning that Genl Pickett had fallen back to the Five Forks Genl R. H. Anderson with the same force with which he had operated the previous day, viz Huntons & two brigades of Johnson’s was directed to move up the left bank9            

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of Hatcher’s run to Picketts support, but Could not reach him in time to participate in the battle. Genl Fitz Lee with his own & Rossers division of cavy, Covered Picketts retreat & held the crossing of Hatchers run at Fords road till Anderson’s arrival.

The necessary extension of our right flank & the withdrawal of the divisions under Pickett & Anderson, so weakened the lines south of the Appomattox, that Gordon with 5500 muskets was compelled to hold a front of six miles, & the entrenchments to his right were principally held by held by a line of skirmishers & arty.

On the night of the 1st of Apl a general advance, accompanied by a severe cannonade, was made upon our position between the appomattox & Hatchers run. our picket line was driven in at several points, & the contest for its retention continued with alternate success till 4 ½ am on the 2nd when an assault was made upon the entrenchments, which were carried at several points. Genl J. A. Walker10 promptly reestablished his position of broken line near the appomattox river. Five hundred yards of Genl Grimes11 front, near its intersection with the Jerusalem Plank road, were occupied, before the advance of the enemy could be checked; but Grimes reinforced by a part of a brigade of Walker’s division, fighting from traverse to traverse, recovered a portion of his line to the right of the (Rives)12 Salient; while Evans13 uniting with that part of the division left of the salient, proceeded in a similar manner & regained a large portion of the lost works on that side. The enemy was therefore confined to the salient, which was commanded by the batteries on the second line.

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The breaches in vicinity of Jones’ & Hart’s houses on Gordon’s right, for want of sufficient force could not be closed. As soon as it was Known that the line on Gordon’s right was penetrated, Genl AP Hill was directed to abandon the position west of Hatchers run, & to hold the Boydton plank road, until he could withdraw to the interior line East of Town creek. But Before this could be accomplished, the column which had broken through in vicinity of Jones’ house, perched across the Boydtons & Cox roads to the appomattox, & moving Eastwardly forced Genl Wilcox14 who held that portion of the line with Thomas’ & Lanes15 brigades of his division, to retire across the creek. Genl Longstreet who had been ordered the previous afternoon from the front of Richmond, coming up at this time with a portion of Fields division, stopped the enemy’s farther advance. Col: Poague with a portion of his battn of arty & Lt Col Chew16 with some guns of the Horse arty under the gallant Major Brethed [sic],17 who had aided materially in checking the progress of the enemy, took position on the interior line; & Major Brander18 with four guns of his battn was posted by Genl Pendleton chief of Arty on the north side of the appomattox to Sweep its front. These dispositions effectually repelled all further attempts to advance in that direction. The column of the enemy which penetrated the line near Harts house, still farther to the right, turned westwardly. To arrest its progress, McCombs’ brigade19 was withdrawn from the trenches by Br Genl Jno: R. Cooke,20 & formed perpendicularly to the line. Though having less than   

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six hundred men in his brigade, McComb21 succeeded for a time in arresting checking its advance, but his left being turned, he was compelled to fall back to Hatchers run. Davis’ brigade was captured in attempting to withdraw & the enemy proceeding down the Boydton road got possession of the bridge at Burgess mill & cut off McComb’s escape retreat. His men abandoning their arms & accoutrements Swam the creek & about four hundred thus escaped. Genl Heth finding who Commanded on the west side of Hatchers run, ascertaining that our lines on the East side were broken, & that the enemy had possession of the Boydton plank road, withdrew the troops from the trenches & crossing at watkins bridge, marched to Sutherland’s station on the S. S. Road. Assuming where he took up a position to Cover the withdrawal of the trains parked at that point, he directed Genl Cooke whom he placed in command, to join Genl R H Anderson as soon as this was accomplished. Cookes force consisting of the remnants of his own, McGowan’s scales’ & McCrae’s19 brigades & numbering about 1200 muskets, was placed in line of battle. The enemy by this time 11 am approached in heavy large force & made several attacks upon his position but was repulsed with loss. At 4 ½ P.M. thin[k]ing a strong column in his rear, which threatened to envelope him he Cooke abandoned his position & marched up the right bank of the appomattox unmolested, carrying with him all the arty & waggons [sic], except four guns the horses of which had been killed in the fight. Genl Anderson learning in the afternoon of the 2nd the result of the days operations,

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commenced to retire on the Namozine & Tabernacle roads towards Amelia CtHouse. He was followed by the cavy under Genl Fitz Lee, who especially commends Genls Wm F. Lee, Rosser, & Mumford of the Cavy, & Wise & Hunton of the Infy for the important service performed by them, in the continual encounters which occurred in protecting the march.

The condition of affairs now required the abandonment of the lines south of the Appomattox, no nor could any benefit could eventually result from the longer retention of the positions on James river. Every hour would but increase the difficulty of withdrawing the army, for the superior numbers of the enemy would soon enable him to get possession of the roads to Danville & Lynchburg.

Preparations were accordingly made to evacuate the whole line, including Richmond & Petersburg. Its necessity had been foreseen during the winter, & Bevels & Goodes bridges over the appomattox, upwards of some 30 miles above Petersburg, ordered to be rebuilt. Genls Longsteet & Hills corps which were south of Petersburg, were directed to cross the appomattox at Campbells bridge & the Pontoon bridge at Battersea Factory, & pursue the river road on its north side, to Bevils bridge. Genl Gordons Corps occupying the trenches in front of Petersburg, was ordered to cross at Pocahontas & the R. R. bridges, take the Hickory road & follow Genl Longstreet. Genl Mahones division which held the lines between the James & appomattox rivers, was directed on the road via Branch church to Genito bridge. The Arty & waggon trains as far as

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chesterfield ctHouse & old Coleville to Goode’s bridge. Genl Ewell in front of Richmond, was directed to cross James river at or below the city, & take the road via Branch church to Genito bridge. The arty & wagon trains were ordered as far as practicable on other roads; the movement to commence at 8 P. M. that night & the army to unite in vicinity of Amelia CtHouse.

The troops were successfully drawn out of the trenches during the night of the 2nd & as many guns as could be provided with horses. The pickets were called in at 3 AM on the 3rd & each column pursued the route designated. Only such artillery, medical & ammunition wagons as were necessary accompd them in their march, yet owing to the soft condition roads & the feeble condition of the teams, their progress was slow. On approaching Bevils bridge on the morg of the 3rd, it was ascertained that in Consequence of the recent rains, the low grounds on the south side of the river were entirely submerged, & the causeway leading from it was not practicable even for horsemen. Longstreet was therefore ordered to proceed to Goodes bridge, but this was also found to be impassable from similar causes. During the afternoon a ponton [sic] bridge was extended over the flats, & Longstreet was enabled to cross his Command by next morg. He was followed by Gordon & the march continued to Amelia CtHouse on the 4th. Genl R H Anderson who had taken position on the Bevils bridge road south of the appomattox, was directed in conjunction with the Cavy to guard the approaches to the line of march until Mahone crossed the river

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& then to follow Longstreet. Ewell who had crossed his command over the R R bridge at Mattoax on the night of the 4th, was directed to follow Anderson. Gordon to continue to form the rear guard. The Arty & wagons trains accompg the army were ordered to be reduced, & the general trains to pursue routes west of the Danville R. R. to Farmville.

 As Longstreets Corps reached Amelia CtHouse Genl Wm F. Lee posted on the roads East of that place, was skirmishing with the enemy’s cavy. The troops as they came up were placed in position to invite an attack but the enemy was satisfied at the discovery of our presence. Finding that no supplies had been placed at this point as ordered, the Qr Mrs & Commissaries were dispatched through the adjacent country to collect them. Attempts were made before the arrival of the army at Amelia, to communicate with the depots south, & to procure the necessary subsistence, but the operator having abandoned his post on the 3rd no message could be transmitted by telegraph, & recourse was had to Couriers. The efforts to obtain supplies from the country was attended with but partial success, though they were continued through the night & the troops obtained but little rest or refreshment. The march was resumed on the morg of the 5th. Genl Wm F. Lee preceding Longstreet in his route down the Danville RRoad, & Gary22 with his brigade, the wagon train on the Painesville road. On approaching Jetersville, the enemy’s cavy was found in position at the cross roads near Scotts.

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A detachment thrown out in the direction of Painesville encountered the wagon train & destroyed a number of the ammunition & medical wagons. Genl Fitz Lee moved promptly to its rescue, & Coming up with Gary who was engaged near Painesville drove the enemy with loss to within a mile of Jetersville. Before arrangements could be made by Longstreet to dislodge the Federal cavy enemy from its his position at the crossroads, it was ascertained that Genl Grant with one the main portion of his army was approaching Jetersville, & that Genl Ord with the other (remainder)23 was moving upon Burkesville. The procurement of supplies from Danville was therefore rendered impracticable, & a change of route became necessary in order to draw them from Lynchburg. The march of the army was at once directed on Farmsville [sic] via Amelia Springs & Deatonville. Its progress was retarded by the presence of a large number of wagons which seeking refuge from the enemy’s cavry had been turned upon its line of march. The construction of a bridge over Deep creek materially delayed the trains & it was not till the morg of the 6th that the head of the column reached Rives station on the Lynchburg R. R. The advance under Genl Rosser made a successful attack on a Federal detachment sent to destroy the High bridge. Seven hundred & eighty prisoners were captured & among the killed was the commander of the expedition Br Genl Read.24 On our side the gallant Genl Dearing25 was mortally wounded & the bold & intrepid Major J. W. Brown26

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of the Horse arty was killed while leading the charge. To cover Farmville, Longstreets corps was first in position. Wilcox was stationed on the right, Field on the left, with Heth & Mahone in reserve. Orders were sent for the other Corps to close up as fast as practicable. At Deatonsville the trains which had pursued the Genito & Clementown roads entered the line of march & further delayed the progress of the troops. Staff officers were sent to turn them into any practicable roads leading west to Farmville & to expedite the concentration of the army.

Genl R. H. Anderson’s Corps composed of Picketts & B. R. Johnsons divisions, becoming separated from Longstreets rear, the Federal cavy advancing by the Pride church road penetrated the interval, attacked his right & thus delayed his embarrassed the march. The cavy being dispersed, Ewells corps closed upon Anderson. The enemy now appeared in strong force on our flank between Sandy & Sailors creek & attacked the train as it crossed the former stream, at the same time pressing heavily upon Gordons rear. To cover the train & to relieve Gordon, Genl Ewell in conjunction with Genl Anderson formed line of battle along the road, advanced his skirmishers, drove back the enemy & held him in check until Gordon closed up. He then moved forward after Anderson & crossed Sailors creek proceeding with Johnsons division to support Picketts division being who was at

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the time engaged with the Federal cavy which had cut the line of march between Anderson him & Longstreet.

Genl Gordon’s Corps forming the rear guard of the army, after passing Amelia springs was attacked by Cavy & Infy but successfully resisted by Wm F. Lee’s Cavy supported by Evans division, until the wagon train got beyond danger. Successive positions were then assumed by Gordon, who retiring by division checked the enemy’s advance for several miles, when in consequence of the slow progress of the train, he was obliged to make a determined stand or abandon it. A position was taken on the range of hills at Deatonsville, where with the assistance of Col: H. P. Jones arty & Wm F. Lees Cavy, the advance of the enemy was arrested & the road cleared, the troops fighting bravely & the enemy losing heavily.

About 3 P.M. the wagon train having turned off the Jamestown road (pursued by the troops) towards Farmville, was delayed by the difficult passage of sailors creek. Gordon following its route was again obliged to check the pursuit of the enemy until the train could cross the stream. With this view Grimes & Walker’s divisions, with a portion of Jones Arty, were placed in position. The cavy under Wm F. Lee had been ordered to the front, & Evans division had been so exhausted & scattered by its continuous engagement during the day, had been retired.

The rear of Ewell’s corps having been uncovered

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by the deflection of Gordon from the line of march, the enemy’s Cavy followed by his infantry closed with Kershaw, the rear division, & drove it across Sailors creek.27 To meet this movement, Genl Ewell formed line of battle across the Jamestown road facing to the rear, Kershaw28 on the left right & Custis Lee on the left, while Anderson endeavoured to clear the road in advance. Before the troops got into position, a heavy fire of Arty opened upon them, which continued without intermission during the engagement. The infanty advancing to the attack of Ewell was repulsed, the arty brigade of Lees division led by Col: Crutchfield,29 charging & driving the enemy in its front across sailors creek. But Anderson having failed in his attack against the column occupying the road in advance & Kershaws right having been turned & he forced back, Lees division was surrounded & Captured. Genl Ewell with his division & brigade commanders being were taken prisoners, while the gallant Col: Crutchfield who had served fought in all the battles under the heroic Jackson & survived serious wounds was killed. Br Genls Cox & Hunton of Andersons Corps were with other officers & many men, were captured. Genl Anderson with his division commanders & the rest of his Briges escaped, but the remainder of his corps were driven from the field. The veteran Genl H. A. Wise brought off in good order the greater portion of his brigade.

Gordon had no sooner formed his line to the left of Ewell, than [sic] the enemy advanced rapidly & attacked him vigorously, but was repulsed. After the capture or dispersion of Ewells Corps, the enemy massed heavily on Gordons front, again attacked & was again repulsed. About 6 P.M. the attack was renewed in front & on both flanks, Grimes & Walkers divisions were driven from the field in Confusion & a portion of the wagon & arty trains lost.

The troops obtained but little rest during the night. , & Many abandoned their ranks from sheer exhaustion. Every effort was made to collect & refresh them,

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& the army continued its retreat. Gordon with his corps & the remnants of Ewells & Andersons, was directed to take the advance & to cross the Appomattox at the High bridge; Longstreet to form the rear guard & cross at Farmville.

On the morg of the 7th Apl the trains being further reduced, moved forward on the Lynchburg stage road towards appomattox CtHouse. Gordon after crossing the river proceeded through the woods on their right for their protection. The enemy following closely upon Longstreet the bridge at Farmville was burned in his rear, & the cavy crossed at a ford above. A train of cars with provisions having arrived from Lynchburg, rations to the troops were partially issued.

When near Cumberland church, the enemy pressing our rear & flanks, & the trains almost stopped in their passage through a bad crossroad, Longstreets Corps was thrown into line to resist his advance. Mahone constituting Longstreets left was attacked, but G. T. Andersons brigade of Fields division coming up promptly on his right, the enemy was repulsed with loss. The attack was subsequently renewed & an attempt made to turn his left. The cavy on that flank was driven back & a battery taken possession of. Grimes & Walkers divisions of Longstreets Gordons Corps, immediately charged, drove the enemy before them & recovered the lost guns. Besides the killed & wounded about 300 prisoners, the colours of the 5th N. Hampshire, &

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the guidons of the 81st Penna. were captured by Mahone. In the afternoon, the trains still struggling in the mud, were attacked by the enemy’s cavy from the left. It was met by Mumford [sic] in front, & Rosser in flank, & the enemy driven back with loss. Among the captured was Br Genl Irwin Gregg.30

The wagon train having reached the vicinity of new store on the evg of the 7th, at 1 am of the 8th resumed its forward movement protected by Gordon & followed by Longstreet. At sunset a body of the enemy’s cavy struck the Reserve arty train just beyond appomattox station. Genl R. S. Walker immediately threw forward Leyden’s31 battn & Walkers & Dickersons comps armed with muskets, which held the enemy’s sharp shooters in check until some guns were brought to bear. The attack was effectually repelled, & upon the arrival of Gary’s cavy, the train was withdrawn.

By midnight the Federal line had been pushed across the stage road, cutting off the Reserve arty from the rest of the train & closing the road to our further advance. Genl Fitz Lee was ordered to the front with all the Cavy, & supported by Gordon to open the road for the train, which was directed to take the route to Lynchburg. Two battalions of arty & the ammunition wagons were directed to accompy the army, which after covering the withdrawal of the train would pursue the road to Campbell ctHouse. At 1 am on the 9th Longstreet put his Corps in motion & closed upon Gordon,

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who formed his corps half a mile west of appomattox CtHouse. The cavy taking took position on his right, Wm F. Lees division next to Gordon, Rosser in the centre, & Fitz Lee’s division in charge of Mumford [sic] on the extreme right. About daybreak the line advanced, the remnants of Johnsons, Grimes, Evans & Walkers divisions composing Gordons Corps & numbering less than 2000 muskets, moving by the right in echelon. The enemy was quickly dislodged, two guns & a number of prisoners taken. But his infy advancing in heavy force against the left of our cavy, drove it back, & extending in the direction of Appomattox ctHouse, severed FitzLee from Gordon & threatened to separate Gordon from Longstreet. At the same time the enemy’s cavy moving to their right began rapidly to envelop Gordons left flank. FitzLee therefore drew off the Cavy, Wm F. Lee retiring upon Longstreet & Rosser & Mumford moving towards Lynchburg; while Gordon withdrew by his left flank across the Appomattox, the enemy being held in check by the Arty under Genl Long & Col Carter,32 until the movement was accomplished.

On the 7th of Apl a letter had been recd from Genl Grant demanding the surrender of the Army. His reply to my enquiry as to the terms which would be granted, not being considered definite, I had requested an interview on the morg of the 9th. Learning while on the lines awaiting his arrival the condition of affairs, I asked a cessation of hostilities until terms of surrender could be arranged. These having been subsequently agreed on, the army was

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surrendered that afternoon.

No army for a longer period had more successfully opposed a larger force. For four years it had Combated greatly Superior numbers with inexhaustible resources. Though greatly reduced & enfeebled, the whole number of muskets on the last days fight being 7892, the sabres scarcely exceeding 2000 & the artillerymen below that number, still it never faltered in an attack, or declined to advance when offered ordered. Though much enfeebled by scanty subsistence for a long period, & vastly reduced in strength, the whole number of muskets on the last days fight being 7892, the sabres scarcely exceeding 2000, & the artillerymen being below that number, still it never faltered in an assault or declined an attack.

The lives of many worthy men & officers were lost in the Conflicts described. I have no means now of ascertaining their number, but in addition to the officers named in the report I am impelled to make particular mention of Genl AP Hill. On the morg of the 2nd in endeavouring to reach the right of his Corps with a view of reestablishing his broken line, he was shot & instantly killed. Although greatly debilitated by protracted illness he immediately returned to the field when his services were called for, & laid down his life in defence of the country to which he had so ardently devoted it.

I Cannot refrain from Commending in the highest terms the conduct of the several Commanders, & the

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attention & energy of the various chiefs of staff. To my personal staff my thanks on this as on all previous occasions are especially due, for their untiring zeal & efficient Service.

 

 

 

               

 

Source: Checked against original document, Mary Custis Lee Papers, Mss1 L5144 a, 1068-1075, Section 20, Virginia Historical Society, Richmond

Transcribed by Colin Woodward, 2018 August 24 – 2019 March 5

 

 

1. Hilary Pollard Jones (1833-1913) was born 1833 July 13 in Fluvanna County, Virginia. He attended the University of Virginia and taught at Hanover Academy—located near Taylorsville, Virginia—before the war. He became an officer of artillery, serving as the acting chief of artillery in the 2nd Corps after the battle of Chancellorsville. In February of 1864, he became chief of artillery for the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia and later the chief of artillery in Anderson’s corps. He died 1913 January 1 in Washington, D.C, and is buried in Hume, Virginia.

2. Lee is referring to the battle of Fort Stedman, a failed attempt by Lee to break the siege at Petersburg. While initially successful, the assault was a disaster. Confederates casualties were estimated at 4,000. The Federal losses were only about 1,000 troops.

3. Bushrod Rust Johnson (1817-1880). Born in Ohio and a graduate of West Point, he fought in the Mexican War. He entered the Civil War as an engineer and was made a brigadier general in January of 1862. He was captured at Fort Donelson and wounded at Shiloh. He fought with Longstreet at the siege of Knoxville and accompanied him back east in 1864. He became a major general in May of that year. After the war, he moved to Tennessee, where he became the chancellor of the University of Nashville. He died in poverty in Illinois, where he is buried. 

4. Matt Whitaker Ransom (1826-1904), who was from North Carolina. After the war, he moved back to his home state and eventually was appointed as United States ambassador to Mexico. His brother was Robert Ransom, Jr. (1828-1892).

5. Thomas Lafayette “Tex” Rosser (1836-1910) was born in Virginia but later settled with his family in Texas. He attended the United States Military Academy, but he left early to enlist in the Confederate army. He served in Virginia until the end of the war. After the war, he worked on railroad construction. He died in Charlottesville, Virginia.

6. As a commander of cavalry, Thomas Taylor Munford (1831-1918) rose to the rank of colonel. His promotion to brigadier general, however, was never approved by the Confederate Congress. After the war, he worked as a planter (living in Alabama for a time), mine operator, and was active in the affairs of Virginia Military Institute, where he served on the Board of Visitors. He died in Alabama but is buried in Lynchburg, Virginia.

7. Richard Henry Anderson (1821-1879) was born in South Carolina. He was a graduate of West Point and a veteran of the Mexican War. He served in Charleston then joined Longstreet’s corps in the Army of Northern Virginia. He took command of the 2nd Corps after Longstreet’s wounding in the Wilderness. He escaped capture at Sailor’s Creek, but he was sent home just before Lee’s surrender. He moved back to South Carolina after the war, where he died in poverty. He is buried in Beaufort. 

8. Eppa Hunton (1822-1908) a Virginia lawyer from Warrenton, who later served in the United States Senate. A teacher and lawyer before the war, he was an ardent secessionist. He served in many battles in Virginia and was wounded at Gettysburg. He surrendered his forces at Sailor’s Creek and was imprisoned in Massachusetts after Lee’s surrender. After the war, he remained active in politics as a staunch Democrat, eventually winning election to the United States Senate. He died in Richmond at the age of 86.

9. Lee adds in a section pasted to the bottom of the page: “The death of Col. Wm Pegram in the engagement added to the effect of the disaster. He had been detached with his battn of arty to accompany Genl Pickett & was killed in the active discharge of his duties. Faithful in every position he had filled, brave zealous & intelligent, he added modesty, courtesy & piety to every manly virtue.”

10. James A. Walker (1832-1901), a Virginian, who fought with the Army of Northern Virginia in most of its major battles. He was wounded seriously at Spotsylvania.

11. Bryan Grimes (1828-1880), a North Carolina planter and the last man promoted to major general in the Army of Northern Virginia. In 1880, he was murdered in North Carolina.

12. Rives Salient was also called Battery 27, where the Dimmock Line intersected with the Jerusalem Plank Road. It was located just to the north (and not far behind) Fort Mahone and was across from Fort Sedgwick.

13. Clement Anselm Evans (1833-1911), a native of Georgia. After the war, he became a prominent editor and Methodist preacher. He was wounded five times during the Civil War.

14. Cadmus M. Wilcox (1824-1890). Born in North Carolina, he grew up in Tennessee. He attended West Point and fought in the Mexican War. He served in the major battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia. He was also the author of Rifles and Rifle Practice (1859). After the war, he was given a job by President Cleveland to work in the Land Office.

15. Edward L. Thomas (1825-1898), a native of Georgia. After the war, he worked as an agent for Indian affairs in Oklahoma, where he died. James Henry Lane (1833-1907), a native of Virginia, was a graduate of VMI and the University of Virginia. He worked as a professor before the war. In 1861, he was put in charge of a North Carolina unit. He was promoted to brigadier general after the battle of Antietam. It was troops from his brigade that accidentally shot Stonewall Jackson at Chancellorsville. After the war, he taught at Virginia Tech and died in Alabama.

16. Roger Preston Chew (1843-1924) was a native of Loudon County, Virginia. He raised his own artillery unit, which eventually became part of Stonewall Jackson’s command. He served in the major battles that the Army of Northern Virginia fought. After the war, he moved to West Virginia and died there.

17. James Breathed (1838-1870), a native of Bath County, Virginia. He was considered one of the hardest fighting artillerymen in the Confederacy.

18. Thomas Alexander Brander (1839-1900), an artillery commander. He was born and died in Richmond. After the war, he was active in Confederate veteran organizations.

19. William McComb (1828-1918) was a Pennsylvanian who moved to Tennessee before the Civil War. He was promoted to brigadier general in January of 1865. 

20. John Rogers Cooke (1833-1891), the son of Union general Philip St. George Cooke and a brother-in-law of Jeb Stuart. He was born in Missouri but died in Richmond and is buried in Hollywood Cemetery. He was wounded seven times during the Civil War, several time seriously.

21. Samuel McGowan (1819-1877) was a native of South Carolina, who served in A. P. Hill’s corps. William McRae (1834-1882) was a native of Wilmington, North Carolina. After the war, he moved to Georgia, where he worked for the railroads.

22. Martin Witherspoon Gary (1831-1881), a native of South Carolina. He fought at the Battle of Bull Run and other battles in Virginia. He eventually commanded cavalry troops in the Richmond area before being transferred to the Army of Northern Virginia in early 1865. After the war, he returned to South Carolina and entered politics. 

23. Lee evidently intended to replace the word “other” with “remainder,” but did not strike out “other.”

24. Theodore Read (1835-1865) was a Union commander from Ohio. He graduated from Indiana University and enlisted in an Illinois unit in 1861. He was killed on the fighting of April 6.

25. Colonel James Dearing (1840-1865) was a Confederate cavalry commander at the time he was mortally wounded at the battle of High Bridge on 1865 April 6. He died on April 20 at the age of 24. His rank as a brigadier-general was never confirmed.

26. Lee is thinking of James Walton Thomson. Major Thomson (1843-1865) was a native of Berryville, Virginia. He left VMI early to join the Confederate army. He was killed at High Bridge on 1865 April 6.      

27. Deleted portion, written by Lee: “by the deflection of Gordon from the line of march, the enemys Cavy followed by his infy closed with Kershaw, the rear division, & drove it across Sailors creek. To meet this movement, Genl Ewell formed line of battle across the Jamestown road facing to the rear. Kershaw on the right & Custis Lee on the left, while Anderson being engaged in endeavoured to clear the road in advance. Before the troops got into position, a heavy fire of arty opened upon them which continued without interruption for more than an hour during the engagement. The infantry then advancing to the attack of Ewell was repulsed, the arty brigade of Lees division led by the gallant Col: crutchfield, charging & driving the enemy in its front across sailors creek. But Kershaws right having been turned & he forced back, Lees division was surrounded & captured, Genl Ewell with both of his division & brigade Commanders were taken prisoners & many of his Brigadiers were taken prisoners.  

28. Joseph Brevard Kershaw (1822-1894) was a native of South Carolina. He was at the major battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia. After the war, he returned to South Carolina, where he became a politician. He is buried in South Carolina.  

29. Stapleton Crutchfield (1835-1865) was a native of Spotsylvania County, Virginia. He finished first in his class at VMI before joining the Confederate army. After being seriously wounded at Chancellorsville and recovered to teach at VMI. In 1865, he returned to the army and was killed on 1865 April 6.

30. The Union brigadier general John Irvin Gregg (1826-1892), a native of Pennsylvania, was slightly wounded at the battle and released a couple days later.

31. William Austin Leyden (1827-1900), who served in the Eastern and Eastern theatres during the Civil War. A Georgian, he is buried in Atlanta.

32. Armistead Lindsay Long (1825-1891) as a native of Virginia. He died in Charlottesville. Colonel Carter was Thomas Henry Carter (1831-1908), another native of Virginia.

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