AMERICAN CRISIS BIOGRAPHIES ROBERT E. LEE by PHILIP ALEXANDER BRUCE, L.L.D.

R E Lee

AMERICAN CRISIS BIOGRAPHIES

ROBERT E. LEE

by
PHILIP ALEXANDER BRUCE, L.L.D.

Author of “Economic History of Virginia in
the Seventeenth Century,” “The Plantation
Negro as a Freeman,” “Rise
of the New South,” etc.

PHILADELPHIA
GEORGE W. JACOBS & COMPANY
PUBLISHERS

Copyright, 1907, by
GEORGE W. JACOBS & COMPANY
Published August, 1907

CONTENTS

CHRONOLOGY
I. EARLY LIFE
II. FIRST MILITARY EXPERIENCE
III. LOYALTY TO VIRGINIA
IV. FIRST PART IN WAR OF SECESSION
V. PENINSULA CAMPAIGN
VI. SECOND MANASSAS AND SHARPSBURG
VII. FREDERICKSBURG AND CHANCELLORSVILLE
VIII. THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN
IX. FROM THE WILDERNESS TO COLD HARBOR
X. SIEGE OF PETERSBURG AND APPOMATTOX
XI. AFTER THE WAR
XII. MILITARY GENIUS
XIII. GENERAL CHARACTER
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX [Omitted]

 

CHRONOLOGY

1807—Birth of Robert Edward Lee, July 19.

1829—Graduates from West Point Military Academy. First stationed at Fortress Monroe, Va.

1831—Marries Mary Custis, June 30th, at Arlington, Va. In charge of the improvements in the Mississippi River opposite St. Louis, Mo.

1839—Promoted Captain of Engineers.

1841—In military charge of New York harbor defenses.

1847—Serves with engineer corps under Wool in military operations in Northern Mexico. Appointed Chief Engineer on General Scott’s staff. Takes an active part in the investment and siege of Vera Cruz. At Cerro Gordo, leads American troops to the rear of Mexican army by path discovered by his previous reconnaissance. Returns at night through the Pedrigal to bring up reinforcements to support the attack on the Mexican position at Contreras. Conributes by his reconnaissances to the victories at Churubusco and Molino del Rey. Wounded at Chapultepec. Promoted to Brevet-Colonelcy.

1852—Appointed superintendent of Military Academy at West Point, N.Y.

1856—Nominated Lieutenant-Colonel of Cavalry, and stationed in Texas to aid in repressing incursions of Apaches and Comanches.

1860—Appointed to the command of the Department of Texas.

1861—Offered, throngh F, P. Blair, command of the Federal army organized for invasion of Virginia. Resigns his commission in United States army when informed of secession of Virginia. Appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Virginia forces. Organizes the state militia for active service. Fortifiee exposed points against Federal attack. After removal of the Confederate capital to Richmond, becomes Mr. Davis’s military adviser. Apppointed to command of Confederate troops operating in western Virginia. Fails to surprise Federal camp at Cheat Mountain. Confronts at Sewell’s Mountain, Rosecrans, who retreats without giving battle. Takes military charge of coast fortifications in Georgia and the Carolinas.

1862—Returns to Richmond to serve again as Mr. Davis’s military adviser. Appointed to succeed Joseph E. Johnston as commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, operating on the Chickahominy. Defeats Federal right wing at Gaines’ Hill and compels McClellan to fall back to James River. Attacks without success Federal rear at Savage’s Station and Federal flank at Frasier’s Farm, Repulsed at Malvern Hill. Concentrates his army on the Rapidan to resist Pope’s advance. Dispatches Jackson to Federal rear at Manassas. Defeats Pope in two days’ battle at Manassas, and drives him back to the fortifications of Washinton. Invades Maryland, and after capturing Harper’s Ferry and delaying McClellan’s advance at Crampton’s and Turner’s Gaps, repulses a general Federal attack at Sharpsburg. Retires into Virginia. Repulses the Federal army under Burnside at Fredericksburg.

1863—Advances against Hooker’s entrenchments at Chancellorsville. Dispatches Jackson across the Federal front to attack the Federal rigbt. Drives Hooker back to his second line of entrenchments north of Cbancellorsville. Defeats Sedgwick at Salem Church, and forces entire Federal army to withdraw north of the Rappahannock. Invades Pennsylvania. Defeats a detachment of Meade’s army near Gettysburg, July 1st, and drives it back to Cemetery Ridge. Assaults the Federal position July 2d, and captures the Peach Orchard and a part of Culp’s Hill. Repulsed in an attack on Federal centre, July 3d. Withdraws into Virginia. Engages in a campaign of manœuvres with Meade.

1864—Attacks Grant in the Wilderness, inflicting heavy losses and disconcerting the Federal plana. Blocks Grant’s advance at Spottsylvanla, and successfully resists the Federal attempt to seize the salient, and thwarts all efforts to surprise his right and left wings. Takes position behind the North Anna, and by skilful manœuvre compels Grant to withdraw across the river and retire eastward. Repels Federal assault at Cold Harbor with heavy slaughter, and forces Grant to make a wide detour in order to capture Richmond through the back door of Petersburg. Dispatches Early to resist the Federal troops in the Valley and to invade Maryland. Inflicts a loss of 10,000 men on Grant in his first attempt to seize Petersburg. Compels Grant to change his policy from frontal assault to slow advances behind entrenchments. Resists successfully for many months the Federal attempt to capture the Weldom and Southside Railways, and disconcerts the Federal plans for surprising his right and left wings.

1865—Fails to weaken Federal left wing by attack on Fort Steadman preparatory to retreating westward. Compelled to abandon Petersburg and Richmond by Pickett’s defeat at Five Forks. Detained at Amelia Court-House by failure to receive expected supplies at that point. Barred from advance along the Danville Railway, moves toward Lynchburg in the bope of forming a junction with Johnston in Pittsylvania County. Loses a large part of his army by capture at Sailor’s Creek. Drives Humphreys’ corps back, but the delay enables Sheridan to block farther advance by the Southside Railraad. On April 9th surrenders his army at Appomattox, and returns to Richmond. Inaugurated president of Washington College, Ootober 3d.

1870—Visits Georgia in search of health, and is everywhere received with an ovation. Death at Lexington, October 12th.