Arthur Lee, First United States Envoy to Spain
Paul H. Giddens


1 Richard Henry Lee, Life of Arthur Lee, Boston, 1829, p. 11.

2 Ibid., p. 12.

3 E. Alfred Jones, American Members of the Inns of Court, London, 1924, p. 125.

4 Richard Henry Lee, The Letters of Richard Henry Lee, James C. Ballagh, editor, New York, 1911, I, p. vii.

5 Lee, Life of Arthur Lee, p. 12.

6 Ibid., p. 13. Jones, op. cit., p. 123.

7 Jones, op. cit., p. 123.

8 Lee, The Letters of Richard Henry Lee, I, p. 10.

9 This was the case of the watermen of London, who claimed exemption from the royal prerogative of impressing seamen. The arguments of Lee and his associates not only discussed this claimed exemption, but the constitutionality of the prerogative itself. Lee, Life of Arthur Lee, p. 18.

10 Ibid., p. 18.

11 Ibid., p. 19. Junius was the pseudonym of a writer who contributed a series of letters to the London Public Advertiser, from Jan. 21, 1769, to Jan. 21, 1772. These letters attacked the ministry for their personal immorality and meanness. These letters were more notable for their style than for their political influence. See Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. XIII, 14th edition.

12 R. W. Postgate, That Devil Wilkes, New York, 1929, p. 150.

13 John Wilkes was a notorious libertine, whose profession of liberalism won him a large following just before the American Revolution. He was the idol of the common people, who saw in his repeated expulsions from the Commons a thrust at themselves. Postgate, op cit., pp. 139 ff.

14 Francis Wharton, The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, Washington, 1889, I, p. 521.

15 This idea is fully developed in Wharton, op. cit., pp. 525 ff.

16 Colden was a Loyalist in New York, but the letters were not intended for him, being sent by messenger for delivery to Samuel Adams, or some other of Lee’s New England friends. Wharton, op. cit., p. 521.

17 Ibid., p. 521.

18 Ibid., pp. 539 ff.

19 Jared Sparks, The Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution, Boston, 1829, II, pp. 3–4.

20 Wharton, op. cit., pp. 529–32.

21 Arthur Lee to London Lee, May 28, 1779, Wharton, op. cit., p. 535.

22 Lee, Life of Arthur Lee, I, pp. 65–69.

23 Sparks, op. cit., II, p. 4.

24 Ibid., p. 4.

25 Wharton, op. cit., p. 517.

26 Wharton, op. cit., p. 517.

27 Sparks, Diplomatic Correspondence, II, p. 27.

28 Gardoqui to A. Lee, Feb. 17, 1777, Ibid., p. 33–4.

29 Lee to Marquis de Grimaldi, Mar. 6, 1777, Ibid., p. 39.

30 Ibid., p. 39.

31 Lee to the Court of Spain, March 8, 1777, Ibid., pp. 41–44.

32 The Marquis de Grimaldi to Lee, Ibid., p. 44. This was in reply to Lee’s long letter of March 8, 1777.

33 R. G. Adams, A History of the Foreign Policy of the United States, New York, 1924, pp. 47–50.

34 Lee to Count de Florida, Minister to the King of Spain, March 17, 1777. Sparks, op. cit., pp. 45–47.

35 Lee to the Committee of Secret Correspondence, March 18, 1777. Ibid., pp. 47–53.

36 Ibid., p. 49.

37 Secret Journals of the Acts and Proceedings of Congress, Boston,
1820, II, p. 41.

38 Ibid., p. 46.

39 Franklin to Arthur Lee, March 21, 1777, Sparks, op. cit., p. 56.

40 Lee to the Commissioners at Paris, from Vienna, May 27, 1777, Ibid., pp. 64–5.

41 Lee to James Gardoqui from Paris, May 8, 1777, Ibid., p. 61.

42 W. F. Johnson, America’s Foreign Relations, New York, 1923, I, p. 86.