Richard Lee II, a Belated Elizabethan in Virginia, by Louis B. Wright

The Library of Richard Lee, the Scholar

Richard Lee II, a Belated Elizabethan in Virginia

By Louis B. Wright

Note: The following is taken from the October 1938 issue of The Huntington Library Quarterly (vol. 2, pp. 1–35) and used by permission of the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. All rights reserved.

VIRGINIA STATESMEN of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century were distinguished for their polite learning, their classical allusions, and the Ciceronian periods of their oratory. In public speeches, in private letters, and even in the give-and-take of drawing-room conversation, great gentlemen demonstrated their familiar acquaintance with Greek and Roman authors, or with more recent works of the better English and French writers. It was fashionable to give a literary turn to one’s speech, whether in an oration or in a conversation, and none succeeded in this fashion so well as Virginia’s statesmen. This quality in the culture of the Virginia ruling class, so noticeable in the era of John Marshall and Thomas Jefferson, was no new thing: it was part of a traditional training that went back to the beginning of the colony, to the aspirations of certain planters who set themselves up as country gentlemen in Virginia and reproduced the way of life characteristic of the better type of English gentry. More than that, this traditional ideal of culture went back to the Renaissance conception of the well-rounded man who was not complete without the civilizing influence of great literature.

An exemplification of this ideal of the well-rounded gentleman—indeed, perhaps the best example in the early colonial period—is the second Richard Lee, the squire of Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland County. A consideration of his life and his intellectual interests will throw a little light on the cultural ideals of the Virginia ruling class. Richard Lee, who was born in 1647 and died in 1714, was of the second generation of the Lees in America. He represented the established line of a prosperous landed family, but he was still conscious of being an Englishman, and he sought to reproduce in his own circle the qualities of English genteel life that seemed to him desirable. Because his descendants played such an important role in the later history of the country, his own part in the transmission of intellectual interests from England to America is of some consequence.

On Richard Lee’s tombstone in the family graveyard at Mount Pleasant was carved a Latin epitaph which recorded his two most prominent characteristics: public service and scholarship. It reads, in English, as follows:

Here lieth the body of Richard Lee, Esq., born in Virginia, son of Richard Lee, Gentleman, descended of an ancient family of Merton-Regis, in Shropshire. While he exercised the office of magistrate he was a zealous promoter of the public good. He was very skilful in the Greek and Latin languages and other parts of polite learning. He quietly resigned his soul to God, whom he always devoutly worshiped, on the 12th day of March, in the year 1714, in the 68th year of his age.1

As a public servant, he discharged numerous offices so faithfully that Governor Alexander Spotswood, in a letter written in 1712, described him as “a gentleman of as fair character as any in the country for his exact justice, honesty, and unexceptionable loyalty in all the stations wherein he has served in this government.”2 Here was official recognition of Lee’s service as one of the governing group, and if later writers, contemplating the erudite works in his library, have been inclined to regard him chiefly as a man of books, they forget the meticulous care with which he performed his duties as colonel of the militia, judge of the county court, collector of customs on the Potomac, and member of the all-powerful Council. It is the combination of public-spirited gentleman and scholar that gives Lee peculiar interest for us.

The second Richard Lee’s background fitted him for the role that he was to play in Virginia life. His father, Richard Lee I, the emigrant, was a man of wealth and honor. What the social standing of his family in England may have been is unknown. Genealogists surmise, but without conclusive evidence, that he came of an aristocratic lineage. More important was what he became in Virginia. Soon after his arrival in 1642, he acquired extensive lands, held public office, and was closely associated with Governor Berkeley. In 1651 he took his seat on the Council. His manor house in Gloucester County, significantly named “Paradise,” was a gathering place for the gentry of that region. Richard Lee I, furthermore, was a man of business, for his aspirations to be a country gentleman did not prevent his active participation in the tobacco trade. He had an interest in several ships, frequently went himself to London, and at length acquired a landed estate near Stratford-atte-Bowe, a few miles from London, where he probably intended to spend his last days had not fate decreed that he should return to Virginia.3 Lee sent his eldest son John to Queen’s College, Oxford, where he attested his affection for his alma mater by presenting the college with a heroic silver drinking cup. Family historians assert that the second son Richard was also sent to Oxford, but college records do not list a Richard Lee of Virginia in this period. A clause in their father’s will had provided for funds “towards the better education of John and Richard, equally, to assist the one in his travels for the attainment of a reasonable perfection in the knowledge of physic, the other at the university or the Inns of Court which he shall be most fit for.”4 John did become a doctor of physic, but died young, in 1673. Richard became the scholar of the family.

Richard Lee II grew up in a Tory atmosphere where intense loyalty to the Stuart line was accepted as a matter of course. His father, the emigrant, remained loyal to Charles II after the flight from England. Indeed, John Gibbon, author of Introductio ad Latinam blasoniam (1682), who spent the greater part of the year 1659 as the guest of Lee in Virginia, declared that his host, as secretary of state, after the execution of Charles I, hired a Dutch ship at his own expense, and went to Brussels to procure a new commission for Governor Berkeley from Charles II. 5 If the infant son of Secretary of State Lee was still too young to comprehend such doings, he later absorbed so much of his father’s loyalties that he too became a confirmed Jacobite and an ultraconservative.

Of the formal education of Richard Lee II we know little. Most likely his father, following the custom of the times, hired a tutor, or bought an indentured servant who knew Latin—as was the way of his contemporary Colonel John Carter—and so provided for the instruction of his son in good learning. If he went to England to a grammar school, no records of his attendance have come to light. He may have studied in one of the colleges at Oxford, as did his elder brother John. In any case, whatever his education, he acquired a taste for learning and a knowledge of the learned tongues: Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. The family historian cites the statement of a grandson that

some great men offered to promote him to the highest dignities in the Church if his father would let him stay in England; but this offer was refused, as the old gentleman was determined to fix all his children in Virginia. . . . Richard spent almost his whole life in study, and usually wrote his notes in Greek, Hebrew, or Latin . . . ; so that he neither diminished nor improved his paternal estate. . . . He was of the Council in Virginia and also other offices of honor and profit, though they yielded little to him.6

A descendant might regret that his grandfather did not utilize his opportunities for material aggrandizement, but disinterested observers of human nature can applaud Richard’s integrity and devotion to public service and learning.

As a rich landed proprietor, possessed of broad acres and slaves,7 Richard Lee was a man of influence and power. Among the planters of Westmoreland County, few could call themselves his equals. Like his father before him, he held the offices that fell to the lord of Mount Pleasant as by natural right, and accepted civil responsibilities without thought of shirking even the most arduous of public duties. Such was the gentleman-planter’s code. When Nathaniel Bacon rebelled against what he termed the tyranny of Governor Berkeley and the ruling coterie in 1676, Lee was named by Bacon as one of the small circle of Virginia’s rulers. Indeed, for his loyalty to the conservative ruling class, Lee suffered seven weeks’ imprisonment at Bacon’s hands and “received great prejudice in his health by hard usage.”8 Always loyal to his own class, Lee nevertheless performed his duties to the state with the conscientiousness expected of one of his social position. The desire to lead a contemplative life with his books did not permit him to neglect the active fulfilment of his services to society. In maintaining this balance between the active and the contemplative life, Lee was following an ancient ideal of conduct much commended by earlier writers. Unconscious of the fact, perhaps, he was exemplifying in Virginia a manner of life that would have been understood and approved by Sir Philip Sidney.

Of the springs that fed the mixed stream of Richard Lee’s life, none was more important than his library. Isolated on a Potomac plantation, far from centers of intellectual activity, he turned to his books for help in replenishing his own inner resources and for practical guidance in the affairs of the day. His library, consisting of nearly three hundred titles, was indicative of the conservative taste, diversity of interests, and scholarly pursuits of the man, but it was not entirely unlike other collections owned by contemporaries in his own class. Indeed, it was a good example of the “gentleman’s library” of the time, though there was a greater emphasis on learned works and classical authors than was to be found in most similar collections. As in the libraries of other so-called “Cavaliers” religious works composed the largest group of books on a single theme. Lee had fifty-eight items in this category. Learned works, chiefly textbooks, were more numerous, but their subject matter was as varied as the field of learning itself. The third largest group was composed of thirty-six standard works of the Greek and Roman writers—a choice of classic authors indicating considerable care in selection. There were also twenty-four lawbooks, twenty works of history and biography, twenty-one medical books, twenty works that may be classified as belles-lettres, and a respectable sprinkling in science and pseudo science, geography and travel, politics and government, ethics and politics, conduct and heraldry, and certain utilitarian handbooks that a plantation owner might need. On the whole, the library was a well-balanced collection of books needed by a gentleman who proposed to cultivate his intellectual powers.9 The majority of the items were old books in the sense that they were standard works whose place in the reading of cultivated gentlemen had long been recognized. Richard Lee, like many another conservative in that day and in this, did not feel any necessity of keeping up with the latest authors applauded by the London audience. Nor was he concerned with English writers of belles-lettres that later generations have agreed are essential to any library. Chaucer, Spenser, Shakespeare, and Milton found no place among his books. But we must remember that Spenser was always a poet who appealed to a limited group, that Shakespeare had not yet been magnified by innumerable schoolmasters, and that Milton was still a relatively recent poet whose fame had been somewhat dampened by his Puritan affiliations.

Like most of his kind, Richard Lee was a staunch Anglican, and, if his epitaph may be credited, a man of piety. His religious books are the kind that one might expect in the household of a gentleman who believed in maintaining the Established Church and upholding respect for religion in the community. There were Bibles or Testaments in English, Latin, Greek, and French, two copies of the Book of Common Prayer, John Ailmer’s versified rendering of the minor prophets entitled Musae sacrae (1652), and other paraphrases of the Scriptures. Lee also had two copies of Henry Hammond’s A Practical Catechism (1645) and several commentaries and concordances. A volume containing the articles and canons of the church must have been a useful work when ecclesiastical questions had to be answered. Among several works of theology and divinity was the Corpus doctrinae orthodoxae (1585) by the learned German, Zacharias Ursinus, a standard exposition of the Protestant position frequently found in Anglican as well as Puritan libraries. Of works of religious controversy there were scarcely any, the only one of any consequence being Joseph Wyeth’s Anguis flagellatus; or, A Switch for the Snake (1699), a reply to an attack made by C. Leslie on the Quakers.

A substantial collection of sermons and religious meditations lent the library an air of piety. Most of the preachers represented were popular Anglican divines of the generation before Lee; they included Bishop Lancelot Andrewes, Griffith Williams, a staunch royalist, Nathaniel Parkhurst, an exponent of cheerful instead of gloomy religion, John White, Henry Greenwood, Isaac Barrow, and others of like quality. Not all the sermons were by orthodox Anglicans, however, for also included was a famous collection by the Presbyterian, Samuel Smith, entitled, The Great Assize or Day of Jubilee (1618). These sermons were so popular that more than thirty editions appeared before the end of the seventeenth century.

Meditations and guides to a religious way of life—a type of writing favored by all classes and sects of readers in this period—were fairly numerous. The best-known work of this kind owned by Lee was Richard Allestree’s The Whole Duty of Man (1660), a book frequently found in the libraries of Virginia gentlemen. It was a useful guide to devotional exercises and was written with a proper regard for Anglican decorum. Lee also owned a devotional book by George Webb, Bishop of Limerick, which he may have remembered during his imprisonment by Bacon’s rebels. It was a manual of religion entitled The Practice of Quietness, Directing a Christian How to Live Quietly in This Troublesome World. The work, really a collection of six sermons, first appeared in 1615; a ninth edition was published in 1657. A devotional book containing much practical guidance was Christopher Sutton’s Disce mori; Learn to Die (1600), a work long popular on both sides of the Atlantic. Not merely did it provide advice concerning the proper preparation for death, but it also contained useful instruction in everyday matters of life. Men are particularly warned against the unchristian practice of going to law—surely a timely bit of counsel for litigious Virginians. Another handbook of piety, Clement Ellis’ The Gentile Sinner; or, England’s Brave Gentleman (1660), a work also quite common in Virginia, helped to instruct the household at Mount Pleasant in the Christian and Anglican way of life. Among other pious meditations were Thomas à Kempis’ Imitations of Christ, apparently in a Latin edition, Sir Mathew Hale’s Contemplations Moral and Divine (1676), and Thomas Sherman’s Divine Breathing; or, A Manual of Practical Contemplations (1680). These books were not bought merely because one was expected to have a respectable number of religious books. The chances are that Lee and his wife and children read these works as part of their religious observances. If Virginia “Cavaliers” were less strict in their religious and moral attitudes than New England Puritans, they nevertheless were far from negligent of religion. In fact, the maintenance of religion and respect for religious decorum were a part of the essential code of Virginia gentlemen.

Among the miscellaneous religious works at Mount Pleasant were Simon Patrick’s Parable of the Pilgrim (1665), a piece of religious allegory that Virginians preferred to Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, and Robert Boyle’s Some Considerations Touching the Style of the Holy Scriptures (1661), a work often found in colonial libraries, probably because of the great reputation of the author as a Christian philanthropist.

Though the religious books in the Lee library are more numerous than any other single type of work, the titles are the conventional ones encountered in other collections. The learned works, on the contrary, represent a wider range of scholarly interest than is usually found in similar libraries, although Lee’s contemporaries possessed some of the same books.

The skill in languages for which the master of Mount Pleasant was noted in his own time is suggested by numerous textbooks of Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and French. A Greek grammar, two or three Greek lexicons, a Greek and Latin edition of Aesop’s Fables, and a work on Greek accent were texts which Lee must have used in acquiring or in maintaining his proficiency in that language. He was even better supplied with Latin grammars, lexicons, and readers. Among these last were the Colloquies of Erasmus and of Corderius, old and notable instruments for the inculcation of Latin and good lessons of sundry sorts. The Latin grammar prepared by William Lily and John Colet—a textbook Shakespeare used—was one of the grammars specified in Lee’s inventory. A Hebrew grammar and a work of Hebrew scholarship by Sebastian Münster helped Lee maintain his knowledge of the sacred tongue. Of modem foreign languages Lee had textbooks only of French. These consisted of a French dictionary and two or three grammars, including the much used text of Claudius Holyband, The French Schoolmaster (1573). An English dictionary, Edward Phillips’ The New World of Words (1658), and George Dalgarno’s Ars signorum (1661), a book about universal languages, completed Lee’s philological resources.

An interest in other branches of learning is indicated by the number of textbooks dealing with rhetoric, logic, oratory, mathematics, and science. In Lee’s lifetime some of these books were being used at Harvard College, and at the English universities. An elementary introduction to classical rhetoric, the Progymnasmata of the fourth-century Greek, Aphthonius Sophista, a favorite manual of the day, may have been used by Lee as a student.10 He also had an equally popular handbook for rhetorical study, Thomas Farnaby’s Florilegium (1629), and Charles Butler’s Rhetoricae libri duo (1598). Of works of logic commonly used in the universities of the seventeenth century, Lee had texts by Franco Burgersdijck and Marcus Frederik Wendelin. Several treatises on oratory and collections of orations emphasized the importance of that discipline. John Clarke’s Formulae oratoriae (1632) and Thomas Farnaby’s Phrases oratoriae et poeticae (1631) provided both precept and illustration for oratorical composition in the classical manner. Latin orations of John Rainolds, a famous professor at Oxford in the last quarter of the sixteenth century, were also among the textbooks on this subject. Although emphasis on oratory was not confined to Virginians, it may be significant in view of the later qualities of public speech in Virginia that seventeenth- and eighteenth-century libraries so often contained books on oratory.

Lee’s mathematical collection consisted of a half-dozen books of arithmetic, including works by Robert Record and Edmund Wingate, Euclid in a Latin and a French text, and John Napier’s Rabdologiae (1617).

A few titles indicate some interest in science, with the books about evenly divided between ancient and modern works. Beside Aristotle’s De anima, for example, stood William Harvey’s Exercitationes de generatione animalium (165 1) and René Descartes’ Tractatus de homine et de formatione foetus (1677). Two medieval works, Sacro Bosco’s Sphaera, a treatise of astronomy, and the Opera of Albertus Magnus, were flanked by Vincent Wing’s Urania practica; or, Practical Astronomy (1652) and Sir Francis Bacon’s Sylva sylvarum; or, A Natural History (1626). There were two or three unidentified works on optics and physics. A suggestion that Lee may have had some leanings toward occult science may be found in his ownership of the Magiae naturalis (1561) of Giovanni della Porta and an account of the activity of Le Comte de Gabalis, a French dabbler in the occult.

A few textbooks in geography and one or two books of travel supplied information about the great world beyond the colony of Virginia. For example, there were Philippus Cluverius’ Introductionis in universam geographiam (165 I), an Itinerarium (1630) of the Low Countries and France by Gottfried Hegenitius and Abraham Ortelius, an Itinerarium (1649) of France by Justus Zinzterling, Rutgerus Hermannides’ Britannia magna (1661), two books by John Speed, The Description of England and Wales (1615) and A Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World (163 I), Peter Heylyn’s Microcosmus (1621), and The Travels of Signor Pietro della Valle, a Noble Roman, into East India and Arabia Deserta (1665).

Other learned works which should be mentioned were commentaries on Aristotle’s Ethics and on his scientific treatises, and a collection of the works of the Renaissance scholar, Lorenzo Valla. A copy of the statutes of the University of Oxford may be a relic of Lee’s attendance there.

No other Virginia library previous to this time had a greater proportion of works of classic authorship than Richard Lee’s. His collection of the literature of Greece and Rome was well chosen. As examples of the theories of oratory laid down in his textbooks, he had the orations of Demosthenes and Cicero. Among philosophic works were the writings of Aristotle, Epictetus, Seneca, and the not always edifying collection of the lives and sayings of the philosophers compiled by Diogenes Laertius. The historians were amply represented and included the works of Xenophon, Plutarch, Livy, Sallust, Tacitus, Caesar, Quintus Curtius, Velleius Paterculus, and Suetonius. Classic poetry, drama, and other belles-lettres were represented by the works of Homer, Hesiod, Lucian, Heliodorus, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Lucan, Martial, Terence, Claudianus, Juvenal, Perseus, and other less well-known works, including a Greek and Latin version of Aurea Pythagoreorum carmina, Pliny’s epistles, the epigrams of the Alexandrian grammarian Callimachus, and Octavian Mirandula’s anthology of classic poetry, Illustrium poetarum flares (1598). Altogether, the collection of classics was remarkably complete for a colonial library, and we can be reasonably sure that these books were intended to be read by their owner rather than displayed for purposes of learned ostentation. What proportion were translations, the inventory does not make clear; some were doubtless English versions, but the probability is that most were in their original tongues. Acquaintance with classical writers, so often demonstrated by Virginia leaders, can be attributed to such libraries as Richard Lee’s as much as to the educational practices of the time. Few libraries of any importance were without translations of at least a few of the great Greek and Roman writers, and, in a later day, many a Virginian without benefit of university training found it easy to quote from Cicero, Virgil, Ovid, or some other ancient writer who suited his purpose.

The law books at Mount Pleasant were the usual works found at this time in a well selected library of a member of the ruling caste. Although the legal collection was not so extensive as that owned by Robert Carter of Corotoman, it was fairly adequate for a colonial lawmaker and county judge. Whether Lee had any formal legal training is unknown, though the family historian surmises that he might have been a member of one of the Inns of Court. Be that as it may, as a leading citizen of Westmoreland County and a magistrate, he had constantly to face legal problems, for there was not yet a professional class of lawyers in the colony. A dozen or more handbooks on various phases of legal practice must have been in constant use. Such things as Joseph Keble’s An Assistance to the Justices of the Peace, for the Easier Performance of Their Duty (1683), or George Billinghurst’s Arcana clericalia; or, The Mysteries of Clerkship 1673–74)’ or William Bohun’s Institutio legalis; or, An Introduction to the Study and Practice of the Laws of England (1708–9), provided even the layman with the rudiments of legal knowledge and procedure. Lee also had several works explaining the common law, including Sir Francis Bacon’s The Elements of the Common Laws of England (1630). A few collections of law reports and two or three dictionaries of legal terms further added to his equipment. Practically all of the legal works listed in his inventory were also to be found in the library of Robert Carter.11

In history and biography, Lee showed an interest in both the ancient and the modern world. Besides the classical historians already mentioned, he owned a French version of Flavius Arrianus’ narrative of the wars of Alexander, a French epitome of Roman history by La Mothe le Vayer, Philippe Labbe’s Notitia dignitatum imperii Romani (1651), an outline of the organization of the Roman Empire, and Ludolph Smids’s Romanorum imperatorum pinacotheca (1699). The inventory lists the Latin works of Paulus Orosius, a contemporary of St. Jerome’s, who wrote among other things Historiarum adversum paganos, which proves that the times have always been bad. Among his universal histories were Sir Walter Raleigh’s The History of the World (1614) and Archbishop James Ussher’s The Annals of the World (1658), both exceedingly popular works in the seventeenth century. For the Continent, he had a general history of Europe, accounts of the wars of France and of Italy, and a history of the Council of Trent by Paolo Sarpi.

English history in Lee’s library is strangely sparse; indeed, the only work covering the sweep of the English past is an inadequate little book by Lambert Wood, Florus Anglicus; or, An Exact History of England from the Reign of William the Conqueror to the Death of the Late King (1657). Sir Francis Bacon’s The History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh (1622) and Abel Boyer’s The History of Queen Anne (1703–13) were the only books covering specific reigns. Boyer’s eleven-volume work was one of the last bought by Lee before his death. Actions of Parliament during the Puritan Revolution, which had so vitally concerned Lee’s father, were described, from the Puritan point of view, in John Rushworth’s Historical Collections (1659–80), but the curse was taken off this portion of the library by three stout defenses of King Charles I: Eikon Basilike (1649) attributed in Lee’s lifetime to the King himself, George Bate’s Elenchi motuum nuperorum in Anglia (1661), and Thomas Forde’s Virtus rediviva; or, A Panegyric on the Late King Charles I (1660). These were the only books owned by Lee primarily concerned with historical events in England. The nearest approach to a narrative of events in the colonies was Sir Dalby Thomas’ An Historical Account of the Rise and Growth of the West India Colonies, and of the Great Advantages They Are to England in Respect to Trade (1690), a book which a Virginia planter and tobacco merchant would find of considerable timeliness.

The only biography showing an interest in modern history, in addition to the apologia of Charles I, is an English translation of the biography of a French courtier and politician of the early seventeenth century, Guillaume Girard’s The History of the Life of the Duke of Espernon (1670).

Lee’s books on government and politics were precisely the works one would expect a conservative Royalist to own. Sir Thomas Smith’s De republics Anglorum: The Manner of Government of England (1583) provided a description of the organization of the realm in the reign of Elizabeth and gave Virginia readers in the seventeenth century a link with the past development of the land they still regarded as their mother country. Richard Hooker’s Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity (1594–97) justified the Anglican position in church government and confirmed the ecclesiastical ideas shared by Lee and other members of his class. Modern political philosophy justifying Lee’s own notions of government by an aristocracy was to be found in Thomas Hobbes’s Philosophical Rudiments Concerning Government and Society (1651) and De corpore politico; or, The Elements of Law, Moral and Politic (1650). If any further bolstering of Lee’s monarchical notions was needed, it was to be found in Archbishop James Ussher’s The Power Communicated by God to the Prince, and Obedience Required of the Subject (1661) and in John Hall’s Of Government and Obedience (1654). A political allegory of early-seventeenth-century events, James Howell’s Dodona’s Grove (1640), and a treatise attacking the influence of French papists in England, Europe a Slave unless England Break Her Chains (1681), completed the books of political interest at Mount Pleasant.

The medical collection gathered by Lee was of both scholarly interest and practical use. It is not surprising to find a good classicist owning the works of Galen and Hippocrates, the wisest of the Greek physicians, as well as a text of De medicina, by Cornelius Celsus, the greatest of the Roman medical writers. Beside these works of Greek and Roman antiquity stood William Harvey’s essay on the circulation of the blood—the Lee library’s most advanced modern treatise on medical theory. The rest of the medical books were practical handbooks concerned with anatomy and the treatment of disease. Most of these were medical books commonly found even in small libraries. There was, for instance, Philip Barrough’s The Method of Physic (1583), a book frequently reprinted and long popular. The most recent medical works in the library were not very new, for the latest one purchased by Lee was the Pharmacopoeia Bateana by George Bate, published in 1694. Lee, like most of his contemporaries, even physicians, was content to use old books long accepted as standard works of medical practice. If he prescribed for members of his household out of one of his newer works, Sir Kenelm Digby’s Choice and Experimented Receipts in Physic and Chirurgery (1668), they probably fared no better than they would have if he had stuck to Barrough.

Of utilitarian books likely to be needed by a great planter, Lee had but a scant supply. John Wing’s The Art of Surveying (1699), an unidentified handbook for mariners, a treatise on bookkeeping, one of Gervase Markham’s treatises on horsemanship, John French’s The Art of Distillation, a cookbook, and an almanac supplied all the guidance in the practical concerns of life that the library could boast.

Although not devoid of belles-lettres and the literature of mere entertainment, the library possessed not a single item from the greatest English writers. Lee’s taste seems to have run to satires. He owned Erasmus’ The Praise of Folly (1549), and several later satirical works. Among these were John Barclay’s Euphormionis Lusinini (1634, a prose allegory admonishing princes and condemning political faction. Lee must have been pleased at its attacks on the Puritans and Jesuits. A celebrated Italian satire, Traiano Boccalini’s La Secretaria di Apollo, che segue gli ragguagli di Parnaso (1653) also found its way to Mount Pleasant. Although Henry, Earl of Monmouth, translated this work into English in 1656, Lee owned the original Italian version. The most recent satire was Samuel Butler’s Hudibras (1689), a poem ridiculing the Puritans, that was popular in Virginia, as one might expect.

Other poetry indicated a fairly catholic taste for both the learned and the amusing, the stately and the satirical. Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso, probably in Sir John Harington’s translation first published in 1591; John Barclay’s Poematum libri duo (1615), polite Latin verses addressed to Prince Charles and other notables; Abraham Cowley’s Poemata Latina (1668), learned poems on plants; and John Cleveland’s Poems (1660), an assortment of amorous, serious, and satirical verses by that Cavalier poet—provided a variety of poetical reading ranging from the epic to love lyrics. Since the prestige of poets like Butler, Cowley, and Cleveland at this time was high, Lee probably prided himself on owning a few of the best of the recent poets. A volume listed simply as “Pains Poems” may have been the Daily Meditations (1668) of Philip Pain, a New England poet. Two pastoral plays found a place in the collection: Elkanah Settle’s Pastor fido (1677), or perhaps its prototype with the same title by Guarini, and John Fletcher’s La Fida pastora (1658). One four-volume picaresque novel, Richard Head’s The English Rogue (1665–71), was the sole work of prose fiction. Collections of letters found somewhat greater favor, for Lee owned James Howell’s Epistolae Ho-Elianae, Familiar Letters Domestic and Foreign (1645), really a series of gossipy, familiar essays; The Letters of Monsieur de Balzac (1634), a duller but popular collection translated from the French; and Vincent de Voiture’s Letters of Affairs, Love, and Courtship (1657), presenting Voiture’s correspondence with great ladies and nobles of the court of Louis XIV. Lee also had the French version of Voiture’s letters. Because of the relations of the Stuarts to the French court, Lee as an ardent Jacobite probably felt a particular interest in gossip about French affairs during the period when Charles II and the Cavalier refugees were in France.

Of frivolous literature, even serious Richard Lee had three items of interest: a collection of humorous and sometimes unedifying verses entitled Wit and Drollery (1661), a jestbook, Nugae venales (1648), and Raphael Thorius’ Hymnus tabaci: A Poem in Honor of Tobacco (1651). Surely no verses in his library could have been read with more heartfelt enthusiasm than this heroic poem, in two books, whose author declared,

Tobacco, King of Plants I well may call;
Others have single virtues, this hath all.

In innumerable couplets Thorius commends tobacco and finds infinite good uses for it. Even its ashes are a sovereign dentifrice. We can imagine Lee and his fellow planters of Westmoreland reading the poem with approval.

But Lee allowed himself few books that were not definitely improving to the mind. Any frivolity that his jestbook and his anthology of light verses may have induced was easily purged away by several works of ethics and philosophy. The inventory lists, besides particular titles, a “Collecon of ffrancis Bacon works,” probably several of Bacon’s books gathered up and bound for Lee. He also had Bacon’s Sermones fidelles ethici, politici, oeconomici (1641), a collection which contained fifty-six of Bacon’s essays, besides other writings. As a complement to Bacon’s aphoristic wisdom, the library contained Montaigne’s essays, probably in Florio’s translation. Besides Montaigne, there were the works of two other French philosophic writers: Pierre Charron’s De la sagesse (1601) and Antoine Legrand’s An Entire Body of Philosophy (1694). Although we know little about Lee’s inner life and thoughts, it would not have been inconsistent with his Anglicanism if the serious scholar of Westmoreland County leaned toward a skeptical rationalism. Selection of the works of Bacon, Montaigne, Charron, and Legrand would suggest this quality of mind. Charron, who preached a morality based on reason, and Legrand, who had defended Cartesianism at Oxford, with Bacon and Montaigne, found favor with other colonial Americans. The atmosphere which produced the rationalism of Jefferson and the deism of many another eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century American perhaps owed more to a long period of philosophic preparation than has been generally supposed.

One little group of books, on heraldry and the conduct of gentlemen, may be significant of the Lees’ conception of their position in the social order that developed in Virginia during the colonial period. The emigrant who founded the Lee family in Virginia was conscious of being a gentleman and was concerned to establish a family dynasty with landed property, with wealth, and with the trappings and honors that betoken the estate of gentlemen. He laid claim to the coat of arms of certain Lees of Shropshire, and his successors displayed this escutcheon. His son Richard was equally conscious of his gentility and of the obligations that his social position entailed. The first Lees, with their class consciousness, liked to think of themselves as part of the hereditary gentility of England—English country gentlemen living on their Virginia estates. Perhaps that may account for the presence of James Yorke’s The Union of Honor (1640) in the Lee library. This book, a sort of peerage with genealogies, described the great families of England An interest in the trappings of aristocracy also accounts for John Selden’s Titles of Honor (1614), an antiquarian history of titles. An additional personal reason gave a particular interest to John Gibbon’s Introductio ad Latinam blasoniam; or, An Essay to a More Correct Blazon in Latin than Formerly Hath Been Used (1682). Gibbon, later a member of the College of Heralds, had spent the year 1659 with the elder Richard Lee, it will be remembered, and in his work had paid his host a tribute. The younger Lee’s copy of Gibbon’s book on heraldry had probably been presented by the author.

For guides in the behavior expected of members of the ruling class, Lee provided his household with two books, Richard Brathwaite’s The English Gentleman (1630) and H.W’s The Accomplished Courtier (1658). The choice of Brathwaite’s work is suggestive of the philosophy of conduct exemplified by the new Virginia aristocracy. In one passage, the author, himself a country gentleman, had observed: “Men in great place (saith one) are thrice servants: servants of the sovereign or state; servants of fame; and servants of business.”12 This passage might have been taken as a motto by the Lees and their kind, for it expresses their own belief in the responsibilities of the upper class. In the seventeenth century, aristocratic ideals were shifting and were being influenced by the growing commercial spirit of the times. Brathwaite illustrates the changing conception of the place of gentlemen in society, and it is understandable that his work should have been chosen as a useful guide by Virginians, who agreed with his practical suggestions and rules of behavior. The Accomplished Courtier, really a translation of Book II of Eustache Du Refuge’s Traité de la cour, was a sort of guide to practical politics, with observations on the conduct courtiers should adopt if they hoped to succeed in their political careers.13 The treatise was popular with Cavalier readers in England; and since it carried by implication useful lessons for colonial politicians, it is not surprising that Lee should have regarded it as a book worth owning.

In surveying the Lee library as a whole, one is struck by the proportion of books dating from the early seventeenth century and before. Some of these may have been gathered by Lee’s father, though no record of his library has been found. Richard’s elder brother John, whose property came to Richard after his death in 1673, owned books valued at four thousand pounds of tobacco—exactly the valuation of his “negro boy Frank and livery suit” 14—surely not a great collection, but at least a respectable handful of books. In any case, works inherited by Richard would most likely have been standard publications of an earlier day. One economic fact may have curtailed the importation of books in Lee’s later life: after 1660 tobacco prices were so low that even wealthy landowners were often pinched for ready cash and had to restrict their purchases of luxuries. Whether Richard Lee II chose all the works in his library himself or inherited part of them, they were profoundly influential in determining his character and qualities, and they satisfied his interests and needs. In many respects Lee was a belated Elizabethan, and the books he read and provided for his family were the kind that a learned gentleman of the later sixteenth or early seventeenth century would have approved.

The spirit of the Renaissance lingered with Richard Lee. Oblivious to popular trends in literature or new fashions in learning, he turned to the great minds of the past for inspiration and solace. The desire to know for learning’s sake prompted his studies, for he had no urge to write about what he read, no ambition of authorship, no vanity of his own opinions to make him rush into print. Like other thoughtful gentlemen, like many of his spiritual ancestors in the Renaissance, he probably would have felt it indecorous and unbecoming to run to the printing house with his innermost thoughts. One of the considerations which help to explain the scantiness of literary production in colonial Virginia is undoubtedly an inherited feeling, among the educated aristocracy, that writing for the public press somehow smacked of unbecoming professionalism. It was not that Virginians had nothing to say, or that no press at Jamestown or Williamsburg made it convenient for them to print. Men like Richard Lee and his kind maintained a spiritual and intellectual reticence. They would no more have dissected their emotions or ostentatiously displayed their learning in the manner of Cotton Mather than they would have appeared at a social gathering stripped of their shirts.

The master of Mount Pleasant, learnedly making notes in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, thoughtfully pondering the stoical wisdom of Epictetus and Seneca, or contemplating the materialistic aphorisms of Bacon and the gentle skepticism of Montaigne, was a man of two worlds, as indeed the great Elizabethan gentlemen had been. Lee was the heir of all the past, and he was a participant in a vital world which he was helping to create. In him there was a perfect fusion of the active and the contemplative life. And if he wrote no learned treatise or philosophic essay, Richard Lee, by example and precept, by his personal influence, by the opportunities which his accumulated stores of learning gave to others, helped to transmit a part of the Renaissance ideal of civilized life to his colleagues and to his descendants. The Renaissance influence in colonial America was subtle but powerful, and it may account for many mysteries in our intellectual history.

The Inventory of the Lee Library

THE INVENTORY of the library of Richard Lee II was recorded in Westmoreland County, Virginia, on December 8, 1715. It was printed in the William and Mary College Quarterly (1st Ser., II, 1893–94, 247–49); from which the following list is reprinted with identifications. Titles are given first in the abbreviated, and often unintelligible, form used by the maker of the original inventory. In cases where the same work was listed two or more times in different forms, variations are grouped together and separated by semicolons. The inventory entry is followed by the identification, if known. The arrangement is alphabetical by authors in each classification, or, where authors are unknown, by title. Spelling, punctuation, and capitalization in titles have been modernized. The place of printing is London, unless otherwise specified. The date given in this list is not always that of the first edition, but of the edition suggested by the size indicated. But since the inventory maker was careless, the size of the book may have been inaccurately recorded. In the preceding discussion, an effort has been made to give the date of the earliest edition of each of the books mentioned.

For help in identifying these titles, I am greatly indebted to Miss Mary Isabel Fry, reference librarian of the Huntington Library. Her knowledge and skill have made possible the identification of many items which otherwise would have remained in doubt.


[Among the textbooks listed here are a few items that might also be classified separately under the headings of philosophy and ethics, classics, or history.]

    1   Æsops Fables Gr. & Lat. 8vo—Aesop, Phrygis vita et fabellae cum latina interpretatione (Basel, 1518). [There were a number of other Greek and Latin texts.]

    2   Alberti Magni opera 8vo—Albertus Magnus, Opera quae hactenus haberi potuerunt (2 1 vols.; Lyons, 1651)

    3   alvari Grammatica 8vo—Emmanuel Alvarus, De institutione grammatica libri tres (Bergamo, 1642)

    4   Apthenii proginnasmata 12mo—Aphthonius Sophista, Progymnasmata (Frankfort, 1553)

    5   de Anima Aristoteles—Aristotle, De anima (Basel, 1538)

    6   Comentaries on Aristoles Ethics. [Of the many commentaries on the Ethics listed in Watt’s Bibliotheca Britannica, none are in English. John Wilkinson published a translation into English of The Ethics (1547).]

    7   Eyres Arithmetick 8vo—John Ayres, Arithmetic: a Treatise Designed for the Use and Benefit of Tradesmen (1695)

    8   Silva Silvarum fo—Sir Francis Bacon, Sylva sylvarum; or, A Natural History (1626)

    9   Bergers dicij Logica 8vo—Franco Burgersdijck, [GREEK WORD] logica; seu, Synopseos logicae Burgersdicanae explicatio (1658) [or his Institutionum logicarum synopsis (Cambridge, 1637)]

  10   Rhetorica Libri duo 12mo—Charles Butler, Rhetoricae libri duo, quorum prior de tropis et figuris (Oxford, 1598)

  11   Calepini Dictionarium Latinum fo—Ambrosius Calepinus, Dictionarium Latinae linguae (Basel, 1542)

  12   Calligraphia Oratoria 8vo

  13   Greek Grammar 8vo; Greek Gramar 8vo—William Camden, Institutio Graecae grammatices compendiaria in usum regiae scholae Westmonasteriensis (1595)

  14   Formulae Oratoriae 8vo—John Clarke, Fomulae oratoriae, in usum scholarum concinnatae una cum multis orationibus, declamationibus (ed. by W. Beverley; 1632)

  15   Cockers Arithmetick 8vo—Edward Cocker, Cocker’s Arithmetic (4th ed.; 1681)

  16   Comentarij Collegii Cambriciensis Societatis Jesus—Coimbra. Collegium Conimbriense Societatis Jesu, Commentarii . . . in universam dialecticam (Lyons, 1610) [or the Commentarii Collegii Conimbrinensis . . . in libros de generatione et corruptione Aristotelis (Mainz, 1606)]

  17   Corderius 8vo—Mathurin Cordier, Colloquiorum scholasticorum libri quatuor ad pueros (Paris, 1568) [or M. Corderius’s School-Colloquies, English and Latin (by C. Hoole; 1657)]

  18   Ars Signorum 8vo—George Dalgarno, Ars signorum, vulgo character universalis et lingua philosophica (1661)

  19   ffrench schoolmaster 8vo—Claude Desainliens [Claudius Holyband], The French Schoolmaster (1573)

  20   Renati Des Cartes tractatio 8vo—René Descartes, Tractatus de homine et de formatione foetus (Amsterdam, 1677)

  21   Dictionariolum Ang et Lat 8vo

  22   Orationes Latinae 8vo—Dion Cassius, Orationes (Paris, 1604)

  23   English Rudiments 8vo—William Dugard, The English Rudiments of the Latin Tongue, Explained by Question and Answer (1656)

  24   Elementa optica 8vo

  25   Erasmus 8vo

  26   familiar Coloques 112mo—Desiderius Erasmus, Familiarium colloquiorum opus postrema auctoris manu locupletatum (1571)

  27   Elementorum Euclides libri tridecem fo—Euclid, . . . Elementorum Euclidis libri tredecim (1620)

  28   Les Sex primes liberi Euclidij 8vo—Euclid Les Six premiers livres des elements d’Euclide (Paris, 1569)

  29   Phrasis Oratoriae 8vo—Thomas Farnaby, Phrases oratoriae et poeticae (1631)

  30   Jo Bapt fferrarij Senensi Orationes 12mo—Giovanni Battista Ferrari, Jo. Bapt Ferrarii orationes (Lyons, 1625)

  31   fflorilegium 8vo—Florilegium diversorum epigrammatum (Venice, 1550); Thomas Farnaby, Florilegium epigrammatum Graecorum, eorumque Latino versu a variis redditorum (1629); Thomas Messingham, Florilegium insulae sanctorum seu vitae et acta sanctorum Hiberniae (Paris, 1624)

  32   ffrench Dictionary 410

  33   Gold mine of the French tongue 8vo

  34   Etymolgicum parvum 8vo—Francis Gregory, Etymologicum parvum pro lingua Graeca ex magno illo Sylburgii, Eustathio, Martinio, aliisque magni nominis authoribus excerptum digestum et explicatum . . . in usum scholae publicae Westmonasteriensis (1654)

  35   Exercitationes de gen. animalium fo—William Harvey, Exercitationes de generatione animalium (1651)

  36   Hemri Orationes 12mo—Gentian Hervet, Gentiani Herveti Aurelii orationes (Lyons, 1536)

  37   Hodders Arithmetic 8vo—James Hodder, Arithmetic; or, That Necessary Art Made Most Easy (1661)

  38   Terminationes et Exempla conjugationum—Charles Hoole, Terminationes et exempla declinationum et conjugationum (1650)

  39   Erotenun linguae sanctae 8vo—Johann Heinrich Hottinger, Erotematum linguae sanctae [Hebrew grammar] (Zürich, 1647)

  40   Janua Linguarum—Janua linguarum [by W. Bathe?] cum translatione Anglicana [by W. Welde] (1615); J. A. Comenius, Janua linguarum: The Gate of Languages Unlocked (tr. by T Horne; 1650)

  41   Graecae prosodia 8vo—Philippe Labbe, Graeca prosodia (3d ed.; Paris, 1653)

  42   Lylleys Gramar 8vo—William Lily and John Colet, A Short Introduction of Grammar (2 pts.; 1549)

  43   Logicales controversial 8vo

  44   Matheseos tractatio 4to

  45   Mangers ffrench Gramar 8vo—Claude Mauger, French Grammar (1656)

  46   The Life of Count Gabalis 12mo—Abbé Nicolas Pierre Henri Montfaucon de Villars, Le Comte de Gabalis; ou, Entretiens sur les sciences secrètes et misterieuses suivant les principes des anciens mages, ou sages cabalistes (Paris, 1670)

  47   Moors Arithmetick 8vo—Sir Jonas Moore, Moore’s Arithmetic, Discovering the Secrets of That Art, in Numbers and Species (1650)

  48   Opela Sebastian munsterii fo—Sebastian Münster, Dictionarium trilingue . . . opera et labore Sebastiani Munsteri congestum (Basel, 1530)

  49   Rabdologica 12mo—John Napier, Rabdologiae; seu, Numerationis per virgulas libri duo (Edinburgh, 1617)

  50   Statuta miversitatis Oxon 8vo—Oxford University. Statuta selecta è corpore statutorum universitatis (Oxford, 1638)

  51   Universal Dictionary Philips fo—Edward Phillips, The New World of Words; or, A Universal English Dictionary (5th ed.; 1696)

  52   Physica Praxis fo

  53   Magiae naturalis tractatio 8vo—Giovanni Battista della Porta, Magiae naturalis (Antwerp, 1561)

  54   Rainoldi Orationes 12mo—John Rainolds, Orationes duae in collegio Corporis Christi (1587); Rainoldi orationes duodecim (1614)

  55   Records Arithmetick 8vo—Robert Record, The Ground of Arts, Teaching the Work and Practice of Arithmetic (1542)

  56   Winton School Phrases 8vo—Hugh Robinson, Scholae Wintoniensis phrases Latinae. The Latin Phrases of Winchester School (ed. by N.
Robinson; 2d ed.; 1658)

  57   fideles spheere Johannes de sacro Bosco 8vo—Johannes de Sacro Bosco, Sphaera Joannis de Sacro Bosco, emendata (Paris, 1556)

  58   Lexicon Scapula fo 2 vol—Joannes Scapula, Lexicon Graeco-Latinum (2 pts.; Leyden, 1652)

  59   Syllabus Graeco Latinus 8vo

  60   Synonima Latinorum 8vo

  61   Laurentii Vallae opera 8vo—Laurentius Valla, Opera nunc primo . . . in unum volumen collecta et . . . emendata (Basel, 1540)

  62   Logicae institutiones 8vo—Marcus Frederik Wendelin, Logicae institutiones tironum adolescentum captui (Amsterdam, 1654); John Burford, Institutiones logicae (Cambridge, 1680); Narcissus Marsh, Institutiones logicae, in usum Juventutis Academicae (Dublin, 1681)

Urania practica 8vo—Vincent Wing, Urania practica; or, Practical
Astronomy (1652)

  64   Wingates arithmetick 8vo—EdmundWingate, Arithmetic Made Easy (1630)


  65   Cluvers Geography 12mo-Philippus Cluverius, Introductionis in universam geographiam tam veterem quam novam (Amsterdam, 1624)

  66   Hegentii Itinerarium 8vo—Gottfried Hegenitius, Hegeniti itinerarium Frisio-Hollandicum et Abr. Ortellii itinerarium Gallo-Brabanticum (Leyden, 1630)

  67   Hermani Brittania magna 8vo—Rutgerus Hermannides, Britannia magna; sive, Angliae, Scotiae, Hiberniae et adjacentium insularum geographico-historica descriptio (Amsterdam, 1661)

  68   little description of the great world—Peter Heylyn, Microcosmus; or, A Little Description of the Great World (Oxford, 1621)

  69   discripcon of Engld &Wales 8vo—John Speed, The Description of England and Wales, Being Part of His Theatre (1615)

  70   speeds prospect of the world fo—John Speed, A Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World (1631)

  71   a treatise of famous places 8vo

  72   Delavalls Travels fo—Pietro della Valle, The Travels of Signor Pietro della Valle, a Noble Roman, into East India and Arabia Deserta (tr. by G. Havers; 1665)

  73   Iodici Sinceri Itinerarium—Justus Zinzterling, Jodoci Sinceri itinerarium Galliae (1649)


  74   History of the Holy Land fo—Christianus Adrichomius, Terrae sanctae theatrum et biblicarum historiarum; or, History of the Holy Land (Cologne, 1593)

  75   Musae Sacrae 8vo—John Ailmer, Musae sacrae (1652)

  76   The whole duty of man 8vo—Richard Allestree, The Whole Duty of Man, Necessary for All Families, with Private Devotions (1660)

  77   Lancelott Andrews Sermons fo. [Bishop Lancelot Andrewes published numerous collections of his sermons, the most popular folio edition being XCVI Sermons (1629).]

  78   Annotacons on old & new Testamt fo—Annotations upon All the Books of the Old and New Testament (2 vols.; 2d ed.; 1651)

  79   Areti opera fo—Benedictus Aretius, Novum Testamentum Jesu Christi, commentariis (3 pts.; Geneva, 1596, 1600)

  80   Austins Meditacons fo—William Austin, Devotionis Augustinianae flamma; or, Certain . . . meditations (1635)

  81   Dr. Barrows sermons 3 voll fo—Isaac Barrow, The Works (3 vols.; 1700)

  82   Sermons on Several occasions 4to—Isaac Barrow, Sermons Preached on Several Occasions (1678). [Or John Tillotson, Sermons on Several Occasions (1671). Many collections of sermons bore this title.]

  83   Bible 4to

  84   ffrench Bible 8vo

  85   comon prayer book 8vo

  86   Greek Testament 12mo

  87   ffrench Testamt 12mo

  88   Latin Testamt 12mo

  89   Book of Prayers 8vo

  90   A Septuagint 8vo

  91   1st part Boyles consideracons of the style of H. Scriptures—Robert Boyle, Some Considerations Touching the Style of the Holy Scriptures (1661)

  92   a Glympse of Eternity 8vo—A.C., A Glimpse of Eternity: A Sermon on 2 Cor. iii. 17 (1667)

  93   A Collection of Articles 4to—Church of England, A Collection of Articles, Injunctions, Canons, Orders, Ordinances, and Constitutions Ecclesiastical (2d ed.; 1671)

  94   Scholastical History of the Canons of the Holy Scripture fo—John Cosin, A Scholastical History of the Canon of the Holy Scriptures (1657)

  95   a concordance 4to—Clement Cotton, The Christian’s Concordance (1622)

  96   Davids Psalm in Latine 8vo

  97   Gentill Sumer 8vo—Clement Ellis, The Gentile Sinner; or, England’s Brave Gentleman, Characterized in a Letter to a Friend (Oxford, 1660)

  98   Exposicons on the principall scriptures

  99   Clavis mystica D. ffeatley fo—Daniel Featley, Clavis mystica: A Key Opening Divers . . . Texts of Scripture (1636)

100   Glory of the Church 8vo

101   Johannis Gorrei opera fo—Joannes de Sancto Geminiano Gorus

102   Greenwood revised 8vo—Henry Greenwood, Works Contained in Five Several Tractates (1616)

103   Hugonis Grotii Institutio 12mo—Hugo Grotius, Baptizatorum puerorum institutio (Latin, Greek, English; 1647)

104   Contemplations Moral & Divine 8vo—Sir Matthew Hale, Contemplations Moral and Divine (2 pts.; 1676)

105   Hammond’s Catechism 8vo—Henry Hammond, A Practical Catechism (Oxford, 1645)

106   hear the Church a pamphlet

107   Pia desideria 12mo—Herman Hugo, Pia desideria; or, Divine Addresses in Three Books (tr. by Edmund Arwaker, 1686)

108   Treatise of Divinity 4to—Mr. Leigh, A Treatise of Divinity. [So listed in William London’s Catalogue of the Most Vendible Books in England (1658), sig. U4.]

109   the method & Honr of the old English Clergy

110   the new art of living

111   A concordance of Holy Scripture fo—Samuel Newman, A Concordance to the Holy Scriptures, with the Various Readings Both of Text and Margin (2d ed.; Cambridge, 1672)

112   the only way to the rest of Soul 12mo

113   Opera Theologica fo 1 vol

114   Paraphrase on the Psalms 8vo

115   Selected discourses—Nathaniel Parkhurst, Select Discourses (2 vols.; 1706–7)

116   Parable of the Pilgrim S Patrick—Simon Patrick, Parable of the Pilgrim, Written to a Friend (1665)

117   a piece of Divinity 4to

118   a practical catechism 8vo—Daniel Rogers, A Practical Catechism; or, A View of Those Principal Truths According to Godliness (1632). [This may have been Henry Hammond’s A Practical Catechism, q.v.]

119   Divine breathings 12mo—Thomas Sherman, Divine Breathings; or, A Manual of Practical Contemplations (1680)

120   Day of Jubilee 8vo—Samuel Smith, The Great Assize or Day of Jubilee, Delivered in Four Sermons (1618)

121   Spiritual refineings 4to

122   learn to die 12mo—Christopher Sutton, Disce mori; Learn to Die (1600)

123   Thos A Kempis de Xto imitando 12mo—Thomas à Kempis, De Christi imitatione (Louvain, 1570)

124   time & the end of time 12mo

125   Toutes Lees Oures Charitables 8vo

126   corpus doctrinae orthodoxae 8vo—Zacharias Ursinus, Corpus doctrinae orthodoxae; sive, Catecheticarum explicationum (Geneva, 1612)

127   Practice of quietness 8vo—Bishop George Webb, The Practice of Quietness, Directing a Christian How to Live Quietly in This Troublesome World (6th ed.; 1633)

128   The mischief of sin 8vo—Robert Wensley, The Present Miseries and Mischiefs of Sin, Discoursed in a Sermon (1682)

129   Jno Whites Works Divinity fo—John White, The Works (1624). [This may have been one of the many folio editions of his sermons.]

130   right way to the best religion—Bishop Griffith Williams, The Right Way to the Best Religion, Wherein Is Largely Explained the Sum and Principal Heads of the Gospel, in Certain Sermons and Treatises (1636)

131   Anguis flagellatus 8vo—Joseph Wyeth, Anguis flagellatus; or, A Switch for the Snake, Being an Answer to . . . the “Snake in the Grass” [by C. Leslie] (1699)


132   Aristotle

133   Caesars comentaries 8vo—Caius Julius Caesar, The Commentaries (tr. by C. Edmonds; 1655). [There were, of course, numerous translations and editions, but Edmonds’ enjoyed a wide popularity.]

134   Caesaris Comentarii 8vo—Caius Julius Caesar, Commentarii (Frankfort, 1606)

135   Callimachi Cyrinaei Epigrammata—Callimachus, Callimachi Cyrenaei hymni, epigrammata, et fragmenta, quae exstant (Antwerp, 1584)

136   Tulleys Orations 8vo—Marcus Tullius Cicero, Orationes omnes (Frankfort, 1592)

137   Claudianus 8vo—Claudius Claudianus, Claudian Translated Out of Latin into English Verse (tr. by L. Digges; 1628). [This may have been Digges’s translation, The Rape of Proserpine (1617), or Cl. Claudianus quae exstant (Leyden, 1650).]

138   Historia Alexandria Magna 12mo—Quintus Curtius Rufus, Historia Alexandri magni (Amsterdam, 1673). [There were several romances about Alexander the Great, including one with the title Historia Alexandri magni regis (1486), which had later editions.]

139   Quintus Curtius 8vo—Quintus Curtius Rufus, The History of Quintus Curtius, Containing the Acts of the Great Alexander (tr. by J. Brende; 1561)

140   Demosthenes Orationes 12mo—Demosthenes, Selectae Demosthenis orationes (Cambridge, 1642) [or Several orations to Encourage the Athenians (1702)]

141   Diogenes 8vo—Diogenes Laertius, De vitis, dogmatis, et apophthegmatis clarorum philosophorum (Geneva, 1616) [or The Lives, Opinions, and Remarkable Sayings of the Ancient Philosophers (1688)]

142   Epictetus 8vo—Epictetus, Enchiridion (tr. by E. Walker; 1692) [or Epictetus His Morals (tr. by G. Stanhope; 1694)]

143   Heliodorus 8vo—Heliodorus, An Aethiopian History (tr. by T Underdowne; [1569?])

144   Hesiod 8vo—Hesiodus, Opera (1623)

145   Homers Iliads observators fo. [Probably a text of the Iliad, with commentary]

146   Horace 8vo—Quintus Horatius Flaccus, The Odes, Satires, and Epistles (tr. into English verse by T Creech; 1684). [There were also many translations and editions of the separate poems.]

147   Juvenal & Perseus 8vo—Decimus Junius Juvenalis, J. Juvenalis et A. Persii Flacci satirae (1612)

148   Livius 8vo—Titus Livius, Historiae Romanae libri (Oxford, 1708)

149   Lucii Annaei–Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, Pharsalia (Amsterdam, 1671)

150   Luciani Diologi 8vo—Lucian of Samosata, Dialogi mortuorum selecti (Orleans, 1667). [These dialogues were translated by F. Hickes (1634), and also by Sir Thomas Eliot.]

151   Mametij Epistol 12mo—Claudius Mamertinus. [This may have been a section from: Caius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Epistolarum libri IX . . . Panegyricialii aliis impp. dicti, a L. Pacato, Mamertino . . . (Paris, 1581).]

152   Martials Epigrams 8vo—Marcus Valerius Martialis, Selected Epigrams (tr. by T May; 1629)

153   Illustrium Poetarum Flores 8vo—Octavian Mirandula, Illustrium poetarum pores (1598)

154   Ovid 12mo—Publius Ovidius Naso, Ovid de arte amandi (1677) [or Heroical Epistles (tr. by J. Sherburne; 1639), or his Opera (Arnsterdam, 1676)]

155   Plinij Epistolae 8vo—Caius Plinius Secundus, Epistolae et panegyricus (Oxford, 1703)

156   Plutarcks Lives fo—Plutarch, The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans (tr. by T North; 1579)

157   Aurea Pythagorum Carmina 8vo—Pythagoras Aurea Pythagoreorum carmina Latine conversa (Paris, 1585)

158   Sallust 12 mo—Caius Sallustius Crispus, Works (tr. by W. Crosse; 1629) [or his Opera (Oxford, 1678)]

159   Senecae opera 4to-Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Opera (Lyons, 1619)

160   Suetonius 8vo—Caius Suetonius Tranquillus, The History of Twelve Caesars (tr. by P. Holland; 1606) [or Opera (Oxford, 1690)]

161   Cornelius Tacitus Annals fo—Publius Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals: The Description of Germany (tr. by R. Grenewey; 6th ed.; 1640)

162   Cornelius Tacitus 8vo; Cornelius Tacitus 12mo. [Lee probably had both an English and a Latin edition of Tacitus’ works.]

163   Terence 8vo—Publius Terentius Afer, Comedies Made English (by L. Eachard and others; 1694)

164   Observacons out of Terence 8vo—Étienne Dolet, Observationes in Terentii comoedias (Lyons, 1543)

165   Vellius parterculus 8vo—Caius Velleius Paterculus, C. Vellius Paterculus (Historiae Romanae) cum selectis variorum notis (Leyden, 1659)

166   Virgil 12mo-Publius Virgilius Maro, Opera (1682)

167   Zenophontis opera 8vo—Xenophon, Opera (5 vols.; Oxford, 1703)


168   Bacons Elements quarto—Sir Francis Bacon, The Elements of the Common Laws of England (1630)

169   misteries of clerkship 8vo—George Billinghurst, Arcana clericalia; or, The Mysteries of Clerkship (1674)

170   law Dictionary fo—Thomas Blount, [GREEK WORD] A Law Dictionary 1670)

171   Institutio Legalis 8vo—William Bohun, Institutio legalis; or, An Introduction to the Study and Practice of the Laws of England (1708–9)

172   a commentary on Littleton fo—Sir Edward Coke, The First Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England; or, A Commentary upon Littleton (1628)

173   Sr Edwd Cooks reports fo 4 vol—Sir Edward Coke, [Reports] (13 pts.; 1600, 1618, 1615, 1656, 1659). [There were numerous other editions, in Latin, French, and English.]

174   a collection of penal laws 4to—A Collection of Several Treatises Concerning the Reasons and Occasions of the Penal Laws (1675). [This may have been: Ferdinand Pulton, An Abstract of All the Penal Statutes Which Be General (1579), or Henry Care, Draconica; or, An Abstract of All the Penal Laws Touching Matters of Religion, and the Oaths and Tests (2d ed.; 1688).]

175   a compleat book of sea laws 4to—Complete Body of the Sea Laws, Ancient and Modern (2d ed.; 1709)

176   3 vol abridgmt of Geo Crokes reprts 8vo—Sir George Croke, Abridgment of the Reports, King’s Bench and Common Bench . . . by W. Hughes (1665)

177   Sr Geo Crokes reports fo 2 vol—Sir George Croke, Reports of Cases in King’s Bench and Common Bench [1582–1641] (3 pts.; 1669)

178   disputatio Juridica

179   Trials p Pais 8vo—Giles Duncombe, Trials per Pais; or, The Law Concerning Juries by Nisi Prius (1665)

180   Collecon of orphan lectures—John Godolphin, The Orphan’s Legacy; or, A Testamentary Abridgment (1674)

181   Kebles Justice of the Peace fo—Joseph Keble, An Assistance to the Justices of the Peace, for the Easier Performance of Their Duty (1683)

182   Lex mercutoriae fo—Gerard de Malynes, Consuetudo vel lex mercatoria; or, The Ancient Law Merchant (1622)

183   a treatize of maratime affairs—Charles Molloy, De jure maritime et navali; or, A Treatise of Affairs Maritime and of Commerce (1676)

184   Natura brevium 8vo; natura brevium 8vo—Natura brevium (1510). [There were many editions in French and English. After the publication of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert’s Natura Brevium (1534; tr. into English, 1652), this was called the “Old Natura Brevium.” Since there are two entries in Lee’s inventory, there may have been copies of both works.]

185   Practick part of the law 8vo—The Practic Part of the Law, Showing the Office of a Complete Attorney, in All Courts (1652). [This may have been Thomas Forster’s The Layman’s Lawyer (1656), as William London, in his Catalogue of the Most Vendible Books in England (1658), enters: “The Layman’s Lawyer, or practick part of the Law.”]

186   Les termes de Loy 8vo—John Rastell, Les Termes de la ley; or, Certain Difficult and Obscure Words (1624)

187   Court Keepers guide 8vo—William Sheppard, The Court Keeper’s Guide (4th ed.; 1656)

188   Laws of Virginia fo—Virginia, Laws of Virginia Now in Force (collected by Francis Moryson; 1662)

189   ffortescutus Illustratus fo—Edward Waterhouse, Fortescutus illustratus; or, A Commentary on . . . De laudibus legum Angliae by Sir John Fortescue (1663)

190   office & duty of Exrs 8vo—Thomas Wentworth, The Office and Duty of Executors; or, A Treatise of Wills and Executors (1641). [There were many editions.]

191   Symboleography 4to—William West, Symboleography, Which May Be Termed the Art, Description, or Image of Instruments, Covenants, Contracts (1590)


192   Les Guerres D’Alexandre par Arrian—Flavius Arrianus, Les Guerres d’Alexandre . . . de la traduction de Nicolas Perrot (Paris, 1664). [For lives of Alexander the Great see Nos. 138 and 139.]

193   History of K. Henry 7th fo—Sir Francis Bacon, The History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh (1622)

194   Historia Universalis 8vo—Marcus Zuerius Boxhorn, Historia universalis sacra et profane, a nato Christo ad annum 1650 (Leyden, 1652)

195   Annals of Queen Anne 8vo 3 vols—Abel Boyer, The History of Queen Anne, Digested into Annals (11 vols.; 1703–13)

196   Warrs of Italy fo—Pietro Giovanni Capriata, The History of the Wars of Italy, from i6iy to 1644 (tr. by Henry Carey, Earl of Monmouth; 1663). [This may have been Francesco Guicciardini, The History of Guicciardin, Containing the Wars of Italy (tr. by Sir Geoffrey Fenton; 1579).]

197   Compleat History of Europe 8vo—A Complete History of Europe . . . from 1676 to 1697 (1698). [This may have been A Complete History of Europe; or, A View of the Affairs Thereof, Civil and Military, from 1600 to the Treaty of Nimeguen (18 vols.; 1705–20).]

198   Hist. of Civil Wars of ffrance fo—Enrico Caterino Davila, The History of the Civil Wars of France (tr. by Sir Charles Cotterell and W. Aylesbury; 1647)

199   Eikon Basilakij or Royal1 Image—[GREEK WORD]. The Portraiture of His Sacred Majesty in His Solitudes and Sufferings (1649). [This was translated into Latin by J. Earle as Imago regis Caroli (1649).]

200   virtus rediviva 8vo—Thomas Forde, Virtus rediviva; or, A Panegyric on the Late King Charles I (1660)

201   History of the D of Espernon fo—Guillaume Girard, The History of the Life of the Duke of Espernon (tr. by C. Cotton, 1670)

202   Notitia imperii Romani 8vo—Philippe Labbe, Notitia dignitatum imperii Romani ex nova recensione P. Labbe (Paris, 1651)

203   Epitome Del Hist Romanae 8vo—François de La Mothe le Vayer, Epitome de l’histoire Romaine . . . mis en François (Paris, 1656). [There are numerous titles similar to this entry; the work may have been Lucius Annaeus Florus, Rerum Romanarum libri IV. Epitome historiae Romanae (Leyden, 1638).]

204   Pauli Orosij opera 8vo—Paulus Orosius. [Lee may have had a bound volume of his separate works, labeled “Opera.”]

205   Hist of the World Sr Waltr Rawley fo—Sir Walter Raleigh, The History of the World (1614)

206   Rushworths collections fo—John Rushworth, Historical Collections of Private Passages of State (1659–80)

207   Peti Suavij Hist Cons Tridentiri—P;aolo Sarpi, >Petri Suavis Polani historiae Concilii Tridentini libro octo Latini facti?> (1620)

208   pinacotheca 8vo—Ludolph Smids, >Romanorum imperatorum pinacotheca?> (Amsterdam, 1699)

209   Histoll accot of rise &c of the W. Indies—S;ir Dalby Thomas, >An Historical Account of the Rise and Growth of the West India Colonies, and of the Great Advantages They Are to England in Respect to Trade?> (1690)

210   Annals of the World fo—Archbishop James Ussher, >The Annals of the World Deduced from the Origin of Time, and Continued to the Beginning of the Emperor Vespasian’s Reign, and the Total Destruction of the Temple and Commonwealth of the Jews?> (tr. from Latin; 1658)

211   fflorus Anglicus 8vo—Lambert Wood, >Florus Anglicus; or, An Exact History of England from the Reign of William the Conqueror to the Death of the Late King?> (1657)


212   Londo Practice of Physick 8vo-Georgius Baglivus, The Practice of Physic (1704). [This may have been Thomas Willis’ Practice of Physic (1684), but is even more likely to have been a receipt book put out by the London Royal College of Physicians.]

213   Bayles receipts 8vo—Walter Bailey. [This entry probably refers to Bailey’s treatise on medicines for the eyes, published separately and annexed to William Vaughan’s Directions for Health, Natural and Artificial . . . Whereunto Is Annexed Two Treatises of Approved Medicines for All Diseases of the Eyes . . . The First Written by Doctor Baily (1626).]

214   Method of Physick 8vo—Philip Barrough, The Method of Physic (1583). [There were eight other editions by 1639.]

215   Bates Dispensatory 8vo—George Bate, Pharmacopoeia Bateana; or, Bate’s Dispensatory (tr. by W. Salmon; 1694)

216   Praxis Medicinae 4to—Gualterus Bruele, Praxis medicinae; or, The Physician’s Practice (1632)

217   Corneli felsus de Medicina 8vo—Aurelius Cornelius Celsus, De medicina (Leyden, 1657)

218   Anatomy of man fo—Helkiah Crooke, A Description of the Body of Man (1615). [This may have been Joannes Veslingius’ The Anatomy of the Body of Man (tr. by N. Culpeper; 1653).]

219   Kenelm Digby’s receipts 8vo—Sir Kenelm Digby, Choice and Experimented Receipts in Physic and Chirurgery (1668)

220   exercitationes de morbis 8vo

221   Galens works fo 5 vol—Claudius Galen. [No five-volume folio English edition of Galen can be located. This may have been a made-up set, or his Opera omnia (Basel, 1538).]

222   Glissons Anatomy 12mo—Francis Glisson, Anatomia hepatis (Amsterdam, 1659)

223   Gulielm Hardaei Medici Regij 12mo—William Harvey, Guilielmi Harveii, Angli, medici regii . . . de motu cordis (1639)

224   Hippocrates 8vo—Hippocrates Aphorismi soluti et metrici (Cambridge, 1633)

225   Hypocratis opera—Hippocrates, Opera omnis (Lyons, 1535). [There were many editions.]

226   a piece of Surgery fo

227   Reconciliableness of Specifick medicines fo

228   Enchiridium Anatomicum 8vo—Jean Riolan, Encheiridium anatomicum et pathologicum (Leyden, 1649). [The best edition was published in Paris, 1658.]

229   Salmon’s Londo Dispensty 8vo—William Salmon, Pharmacopoeia Londinensis; or, The New London Dispensatory (1678)

230   Institutiones Medicinal 8vo—Daniel Sennert, Institutiones medicinae (3d ed.; Wittenberg, 1628)

231   Sennerti opera omnia 8vo—Daniel Sennert, Opera omnia (3 vols.; Paris, 1641)

232   Systema medicinale 8vo


233   Orlando furioso 8vo—Lodovico Ariosto, Orlando Furioso in English Heroical Verse (tr. by Sir John Harington; 1591). [This may have been Robert Greene’s The History of Orlando Furioso (1594). There were many editions of both.]

234   Euphorionis satiricon 8vo—John Barclay, Euphormionis Lusinini (Oxford, 1634). [The head title of the first part reads: “Euphormionis Lusinini Satyricon.”]

235   Barclai Pomatum 8vo—John Barclay, Joannis Barclaii Poematum libri duo (1615)

236   La Secretaria de Apolie 8vo—Traiano Boccalini, La Secretaria di Apollo, che segue gli ragguagli de Parnaso, del Boccalini (Amsterdam, 1653)

237   Hudibras 8vo—Samuel Butler, Hudibras (1689)

238   Cleavelands Poems—John Cleveland, Poems (1660)

239   Poemata Latina 8vo—Abraham Cowley, Poemata Latina, in quibus continentur sex libri plantarum (1668)

240   Moriae encomium 8vo—Desiderius Erasmus, Moriae encomium (Basel, 1521) [or The Praise of Folly. Moriae encomium (tr. by Sir T. Chaloner; 1549)]

241   La fida pastora 8vo—John Fletcher, La Fida pastora (1658)

242   Pastor Fido 12mo-Giovanni Battista Guarini, I1 Pastor fido; or, The Faithful Shepherd, a Pastoral (1633). [There were also numerous editions in Italian, and several in English. This may have been Elkanah Settle, Pastor fido; or, The Faithful Shepherd (1677).]

243   Balzacs letters 8vo—Jean Louis Guez, Sieur de Balzac, The Letters of Monsieur de Balzac (tr. by W. Tirwhyt; 1634)

244   English Rogue 8vo—Richard Head, The English Rogue Described in the Life of Meriton Latroon (1665)

245   Epistolae Elianae 4to—James Howell, Epistolae Ho-Elianae. Familiar Letters, Domestic and Foreign (1645)

246   Nugae venales 12mo—Nugae venales; sive, Thesaurus ridendi et jocandi (1648)

247   Owens Epigrams 12mo—John Owen, Certain Epigrams (tr. by R. Hayman; 1628) [or Owen’s Latin epigrams (tr. by T. Harvey; 1677)]

248   Pains Poems 8vo—Philip Pain, Daily Meditations (Cambridge, Mass., 1668)

249   Hymns Tabaci 8vo—Raphael Thorius, Hymnus tabaci (1626)

250   M De Voitures Letters 8vo—Vincent de Voiture, Letters of Affairs, Love, and Courtship (tr. by John Davies; 1657)

251   Les Lettres de Mr DeVoiture 8vo—Vincent devoiture, Les Lettres de M. de Voiture (Amsterdam, 1657). [These letters were collected and translated in various editions.]

252   Witt & drollery 8vo—Wit and Drollery, Jovial Poems . . . by J.M., Ja. S., [etc.] (1661). [The 1682 edition is virtually a new publication.]


253   Collecon of ffrancis Bacon works. [Probably Bacon’s separate works bound together as a set.]

254   Bacons Sermons—Sir Francis Bacon, Sermones fiddles ethici, politici, oeconomici; sive, Interiora rerum (1641)

255   della Sagassee tres livres 8vo—Pierre Charron, De la sagesse, livres trois (Bourdeaux, 1601)

256   Legrands Philosophy fo—Antoine Legrand, An Entire Body of Philosophy (1694)

257   Michll De Montaignes fo—Michel de Montaigne, The Essays; or, Moral, Politic Discourses, Done into English by John Florio (1603)


258   English Gentleman fo—Richard Brathwaite, The English Gentleman, Containing Sundry Excellent Rules (1630)

259   Introductio ad Blazoniam 8vo—John Gibbon, Introductio ad Latinam blasoniam; or, An Essay to a More Correct Blazon in Latin than Formerly Hath Been Used (1682)

260   Titles of Honr fo—John Selden, Titles of Honor (2d ed.; 1631)

261   accomplished courtier 8vo—H. W, Gentleman, The Accomplished Courtier, Consisting of Institutions and Examples, by Which Courtiers and Officers of State May Square Their Transactions Prudently (1658)

262   The Union of Honor fo—James Yorke, The Union of Honor (1640)


263   Elenchi Motuum 8vo—George Bate, Elenchi motuum nuperorum in Anglia pars prima: simul ac juris regii & parlamentarii brevis enarratio (1661)

264   Europe a slave unless Engld break her chains—Europe a Slave unless England Break Her Chains: Discovering the Grand Designs of the French-Popish Party in England for Several Years Past (tr. from the French; 1681)

265   Government & obedience as they are directed by Scripture & reason—John Hall, Of Government and Obedience, as They Stand Directed and Determined by Scripture and Reason (1654)

266   Hobbs Elements 8vo—Thomas Hobbes, De corpore politico; or, The Elements of Law, Moral and Politic (1650)

267   Hobbs Philos Rudiments 12mo—Thomas Hobbes, Philosophical Rudiments Concerning Government and Society (1651). [This is a translation of his Elements philosophica de cive (Amsterdam, 1647).]

268   laws of Ecclesiastical pollity fo—Richard Hooker, Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity (2 pts.; 1594–97).

269   Dodonas grove 8vo—James Howell, Dodona’s Grove; or, The Vocal Forest (1640)

270   Thomas Smith Aug de repub Anglorum—Sir Thomas Smith, De republica Anglorum: The Manner of Government of England (1583). [There were ten editions before 1640, most of them without the Latin title.]

271   Power communicated by God to the Prince 8vo—Archbishop James Ussher, The Power Communicated by God to the Prince, and Obedience Required of the Subject (2d ed.; 1683)


272   accomplished Cooke 8vo—The Accomplished Cook; or, The Art and Mystery of Cookery (1660)

273   merchants mirror fo—Richard Dafforne, The Merchant’s Mirror; or, Directions for Ordering and Booking His Accounts (1635). [So listed in Robert Watt’s Bibliotheca Britannica.]

274   the art of distillation 8vo—John French, The Art of Distillation; or, A Treatise of the Choicest Spagirical Preparations Performed by Way of Distillation (1651)

275   Markhams Masterpiece 8vo—Gervase Markham, Markham’s Masterpiece; or, What Doth a Horseman Lack (1610)

276   Marriners fallen 8vo. [The Mariners’ Calling?]

277   Merlin Anglica Ephemeris 8vo—Merlini Anglici Ephemeris. [Of these popular ephemerides one was published almost every year from 1647 to 1684.]

278   Wings Art of Surveying 8vo—John Wing, The Art of Surveying, with Improvements and an Appendix, as Also Scientia stellarum (1700)


279   aurea clavis 8vo

280   Dialogues Rusticks 8vo

281   Edonis nentuti Theatrum

282   Epithetorum farago 8vo

283   fflorus ffranciscus 12mo

284   Jani nicii

285   Morum Exempla 12mo

286   Opiscula 8vo

287   Reglimens and Ordinances 8vo


1 Quoted from Edmund Jennings Lee, Lee of Virginia, 1642–1892 (Philadelphia, 1895), p. 77. In contemporary quotations, except from the original inventory, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization have been normalized, throughout, in accordance with modern usage. The Latin epitaph, as quoted by E. J. Lee, reads: “Hic conditur corpus Richardi Lee, Armigeri, nati in Virginia, filii Richardi Lee, generosi, et antiqua familia, in Merton-Regis, in comitatu Salopiensi, oriundi. In magistratum obeundo boni publici studiosissimi, in literis Graecis et Latinis et aliis humanioris literaturae disciplinis versatissimi. Deo, quem, summa observantia semper coluit, animam tranquillus reddidit XII. mo. die Martii, anno MDCCXIV, aetat LXVIII.” This volume contains nearly all of the known facts concerning the early Lees. The most illuminating interpretation of the founders of the family is that by Burton J. Hendrick, The Lees of Virginia (Boston, 1935).

2 The Official Letters of Alexander Spotswood, ed. R. A. Brock (Richmond, 1882–85), I, 178.

3 For details of Richard Lee I’s life, see Hendrick, op. cit., pp. 3–29.

4 E. J. Lee, op. cit., p. 63.

5 Ibid., p. 60.

6 Ibid., p. 75.

7 See ibid., pp. 79–81, for the will of Richard Lee II, listing his land and mentioning many slaves by name.

8 Ibid., p. 76.

9 For the sort of books prized by another Virginia family of the same social class, see “The ‘Gentleman’s Library’ in Early Virginia: The Literary Interests of the First Carters,” The Huntington Library Quarterly, I (Oct., 1937), 3–61. A useful analysis of the subject matter in a selected group of Virginia collections is to be found in George K. Smart, “Private Libraries in Colonial Virginia,” American Literature, X (1938), 24–52. See especially the table of percentages of subjects, p. 33.

10 For an indication of the use of this work and similar textbooks at Harvard College and at European universities in the seventeenth century, see Samuel E. Morison, Harvard College in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, Mass., 1936), I, 177 ff.

11 For a more detailed discussion of the nature of these lawbooks, see the article, previously cited, on “The ‘Gentleman’s Library’ in Early Virginia.”

12 The English Gentleman (1630), p. 115.

13 See W. Lee Ustick, “The Courtier and the Bookseller: Some Vagaries of Seventeenth-Century Publishing,” The Review of English Studies, V (1929), 143–54.

14 E. J. Lee, Lee of Virginia, p. 70.

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