Washington and Lee University

Robert E. Lee and His Children
Virginia Louise Lee




Alexandria County MSS Records. 2 Will Books. Book 7, will of G. W. P. Custis, R. E. Lee's inventory and part of his accounting of the estate; Book 8, remainder of his accounting. 1858–1859.

Christ Church Parish MSS Records. 1 Book. Register of baptisms, marriages, deaths, confirmations, 1830–1850. Baptismal record of the Lee children.

Corcoran, W. W., MSS. Library of Congress. 2 Books, approx. 200 letters, correspondence of Corcoran, including that with Robert E. Lee, covering period from 1865–1870. Contains some new material.

deButts, Mrs. Hunter, letter, 4 August 1959, to Virginia Lee. Mrs. deButts, daughter of Robert E. Lee., Jr., in answer to inquiries made by the author.

Johnson, James Ambler, MSS. Virginia Historical Society. 1784–1902. Section 3, correspondence with the Lee family. Some early letters of Lee family.

Lee MSS. Virginia Historical Society. Invaluable.

Lee MSS. Library of Congress. Additional useful material.

Public Documents—Federal:

Army Register. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1825–30, 1851–58, et. al. Good statistical source for information of West Point, Army assignments, etc.

Report of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1863, in Three Parts. Part I, pp. 23–27. The Congressional investigation of the Federal disaster of the Seven Days Battles.

U.S. Congress, Senate, Congressional Record, 52d Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. 23. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1892. pp. 1726–1732, Mar. 4, 1892. Senatorial tributes to the late William H. F. Lee, Congressman.

U.S. Congress, House Miscellaneous Document No. 320, 52d. Cong., 1st. Sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1892. pp. 1–107, Feb. 6, 1892. Eulogies of William H. F. Lee, Congressman, by members of the House.

U.S. Military Academy, Centennial of, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1904. 2 Vols. 1802–1904. Comprehensive history and of great value in relation to details covering Lee's cadetship and command there.

U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. 130 Vols. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1880–1901. Indices. Indispensable for any writing pertaining to the Civil War.


Alexandria Gazette

Lexington Gazette

New York Times

Richmond Examiner

Richmond Enquirer

Richmond Time Dispatch*

Washington Post

* The January 19 and 20, 1907 editions of the Richmond Time Dispatch were Lee Centennial Editions and given over almost wholly to pictures, articles, and addresses pertaining to Lee. Very worthwhile and interesting.

Books and Articles:

Avary, Myrta L., A Virginia Girl in the Civil War. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1903. vii, 384 pp. Peripheral.

Bond, Christiana, Memories of General Robert E. Lee. Baltimore: The Norman, Remington Co. 1926. 52 pp. Illus. A glimpse of Lee, the peacemaker and gentleman, after the war.

Chestnut, Mary Boykin, ed. Ben Ames Williams, A Diary from Dixie. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1949. xii, 547 pp. Index. A penetrating analysis of the war-time South. Some Lee family anecdotes.

Cooke, John Esten, Robert E. Lee. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co., 1899. 501 pp. Illus., maps. Has several good eye witness accounts of Lee, the commander.

Cuthbert, Norma B., “To Molly: Five Early Letters of R. E. Lee to His Wife,” Huntington Library Quarterly, XV (May 1952) 245–280.

DeLeon, T. C., Belles, Beaux and Brains of the Sixties. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co., 1907. 464 pp. Illus. A potpourri, but interesting, with some Lee Material.

Durkin, Joseph T., ed., John Dooley, Confederate Soldier. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1945. xxiii, 235 pp. Illus., maps, index. A sensitive, imaginative account of the war by a soldier in the ranks. Writing in the first person, he takes the reader up the slope with Pickett's Division into the hell that was Gettysburg. A few glimpses of Lee.

Harrison, Mrs. Burton, Recollections Grave and Gay. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911. 370 pp. Index. War-time Richmond, brief pictures of the Lee family.

Jones, J. William, Life and Letters of Robert E. Lee. New York and Washington: The Neale Publishing Co., 1906. 486 pp. Invaluable for this study.

Jones, J. William, Personal Reminiscences, Anecdotes and Letters of General Robert E. Lee. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1875. 460 pp. Illus., appdcs. Particularly valuable for this paper.

Lee, Fitzhugh, General Lee. New York & London: D. Appleton & Co., 1910. 424 pp. Illus., maps, index. Laudatory, but extremely helpful because of his closeness to the family.

Lee, Henry, Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department of the United States. New York: University Publishing Co., 1869. 573 pp. Illus., appdcs. Chiefly of value because of the preface which Robert E. Lee edited, and which reveals “Light Horse Harry” Lee as a man and father in the letters he wrote his sons from exile.

Lee, Robert E., To Markie, Letters of Robert E. Lee to Martha Custis Williams. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1933. xii, 91 pp. Revelatory of Lee's character, especially his sense of humor when younger, and the developing religiosity of his outlook.

Lee, Robert E., Jr., Recollections and Letters of General Robert E. Lee. New York: Garden City Publishing Co;, 1924. 440 pp. Appdcs., index. Reveals the Lee the whole world reveres but written honestly by one who could not do otherwise. Essential for a family picture.

“Lee's Advice to His Children,” Ladies Home Journal, XXI (Nov. 1904), 10.

Long, A. L., Memoirs of Robert E. Lee. New York, Philadelphia & Washington: J. M. Stoddart & Co., 1886. Note, 500 pp. Illus., maps, appdcs., index. Another valuable, personal source.

Mason, Emily V., Popular Life of General E. Lee. Baltimore: John Murphy & Co., 1872. 350 pp. Illus., appendix. Poor organization, but much of the material came personally from Mrs. R. E. Lee.

McCabe, W. Gordon, “Robert E. Lee, Jr.,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, XXIII, (Feb. 1915), xvi–xl.

Nichols, Roy, ed., Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. New York: The Century Co., 1884–1888. 4 vol. Illus., maps. Vol. II contains a full account of the Seven Days Battles, Lee's first great triumph. Supplemental to the Official Records.

Page, Thomas Nelson, Robert E. Lee, Man and Soldier. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911. xviii, 691 pp. Illus., maps, apdcs., index. Mainly concerned with Lee the soldier but also reveals the sweetness of Lee the man.

Pryor, Mrs. Roger A., Reminiscences of Peace and War. New York: McMillian Co., 1904. 402 pp. Illus., index. Well written story of the civilian side of war, with some good anecdotes of Lee.

Ranson, A.R. H., “Robert E. Lee As I Knew Him.” Harper's, 122 (Feb. 1911), 327–336.

Riley, Franklin L., General Robert E. Lee After Appomattox. New York: The McMillan Co., 1922. xi, 236 pp. Illus., appendix, index. a memorial volume by Lee alumni. An excellent picture of post-war Lee in memoirs by his students. Some glimpses of Lee family also.

Scott, W. W., “Some Personal Memories of R. E. Lee,” William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 6, (Oct. 1926), 277–288.

Taylor, Walter H., Four Years with General Lee. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1877. 189 pp. Illus., appendix. Primarily military but some revelations of Lee as man and father by one closest to him during four years of war.

Valentine, Edward, “Reminiscences of General Lee,” Outlook, Vol. 84 (Dec. 1906), 964–967.

White, Henry A., Robert E. Lee and the Southern Confederacy. New York and London: G. P. Putnam & Sons, 1902. viii, 457 pp. Illus, maps, index. Good one-volume biography but of little value for family relationships.

Washington College Catalogue of Officers and Alumni. Baltimore: John Murphy & Co., 1869. 76 pp. For comparison of enrollment figures before and after Lee's tenure as President. Some interesting additional data.

Young, James C., “What Gen. R. E. Lee's Servant Remembers,” Collier's 79. (Mar. 1927).

Secondary Works

Adams, Henry, The Education of Henry Adams. New York: The Modern Library, 1931. 505 pp. Intro, preface, index. Succinct account of Rooney Lee at Harvard.

Alexander, Frederick W., Stratford Hall and the Lees Connected with its History. Oak Grove, Virginia: F. W. Alexander, 1912. Pref., 332 pp. Illus. Of inestimable help for genealogical background. Some good condensations of members of the Lee family.

Bill, A. H., The Beleagured City. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946. 295 pp. Notes, biblio., index, illus. Fascinating and thorough account of Richmond in wartime, covers practically everything. Aids in understanding the “Southern mind.”

Boley, Henry, Lexington in Old Virginia. Richmond: Garrett & Massie, 1936. vii, 228 pp. Illus., index. Much excellent material on the Lee family after the war. Charmingly written.

Boyd, Thomas, Light-Horse Harry Lee. New York and London: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1931. 344 pp., biblio., index. Fullest account of R. E. Lee's father and of value for an understanding of Lee's development.

Boynton, Edward C., History of West Point. New York: D. Van Nostrand & Co., 1864. 408 pp. Illus., maps. Excellent coverage of early West Point, stressing its contributions in the Revolutionary War.

Bradford, Gamaliel, Lee the American. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1912. 266 pp. Illus. app., biblio., notes, index. A penetrating analysis of Lee by an admiring Yankee. Laudatory, with reservations.

Brooke, William, Lee of Virginia. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1932. xix, 342 pp. Illus., biblio., index. An overextended answer to Dodd's Lincoln or Lee. Professes admiration of Lee but thanks God he didn't win.

Carter, Charles, “His Will,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, XXII (Dec. 1914), 380–382.

Carter, W. H., “Lee Miscellany,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, XXXIII (Oct. 1925), 371–382.

Clarke, Malcolm C., “The First Quarter-Century of the Richmond and Danville Railroad,” Thesis, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., Dec. 1958. Contains material on the subsequent career of Lee's friend Andrew Talcott, after he resigned from the army.

Cullum, George Washington, Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the United States Military Academy, 1802–1867. New York: D. Van Nostrand & Co., 1868. Vol. II. 645 pp. Index.

Dictionary of American Biography, ed. Dumas Malone, Vol. XI. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1933. pp. 105–106, pp. 120–129, pp. 134–135, for excellent brief biographies of G. W. C. Lee, R. E. Lee and W. H. F. Lee.

Dodd, William E., Lincoln or Lee. New York and London: The Century Co., 1928. viii, 177 pp. Illus., map. Makes Lincoln and Lee political pawns, and asks which leader America really follows, the democrat or the aristocrat?

Editor, “Robert E. Lee,” Outlook, 84, (Dec. 1906).

Fishwick, Marshall W., General Lee's Photographer: The Life and Work of Michael Miley. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1954. 94 pp. Illus. An unusual presentation of General Lee by means of the pictures his friend and comrade took of him. All of the family are included so a valuable addition to any study of them as a family. The text reveals a warm and human Lee in his relations with his friend.

Freeman, Douglas Southall, R. E. Lee. New York, London: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1934. 4 Vols. Illus., maps, biblio., appdcs., index. The definitive biography. Indispensable.

Freeman, Douglas Southall, Lee of Virginia. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1958. 236 pp. Illus. index. One-volume synopsis of his R. E. Lee.

Freeman, D. S., “Lee and the Ladies,” Scribner's Magazine, (Oct 1925),342–343.

Heitman, Francis B., ed., Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1903. Vol. I, 1789–1903.

Hendrick, Burton J., The Lees of Virginia. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1935. ix, 438 pp. Illus., index, charts. The Lees in the development of American history, emphasizing lesser known ones. Little on R. E. Lee.

Henry, Robert S., Story of the Confederacy. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1936. Pref., 470 pp. Maps, tables, biblio., index. Short but graphic history of the war. Nothing on Lee family, but good background.

Howe, James Lewis, “George Washington Custis Lee,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, XXXXVIII (Oct. 1940), 315–327.

Lee,Cazenove G., Jr., Lee Chronicle. New York: New York University Press, 1957. x, 337 pp. Illus., maps, app., biblio., index. Study of the early Lees in Virginia, much new material, written in pungent, humorous style.

Lee, Edmund Jennings, Lee of Virginia. Philadelphia: E. J. Lee, 1895. 511 pp. Illus., app., index. Primarily genealogical. Thorough and comprehensive. Of value for family background and chronology.

Maurice, Frederick, R. E. Lee, the Soldier. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1925. vii, 294 pp. Illus., maps, app., biblio., index. A clear, impartial interpretation of Lee as man and soldier, coming to inevitable conclusion of his greatness as both. Reduces complex military problems so layman can comprehend them. Well qualified to do so as author a British military expert and long a student of Lee and the Civil War.

MacDonald, Rose E. M., Mrs. Robert E. Lee. Boston, etc.: Ginn & Co., 1939. Preface, biblio., sources, note, xxvi. 300 pp. Illus., index. The first, and apparently the only, biography of a figure long neglected by historians. Although well researched and with an introduction by Douglas S. Freeman, unfortunately there are no footnotes, so much material very necessary to this paper had to be ignored. Of value in setting the tone in the Lee household and connecting the gaps between the verifiable facts available in other well-documented works.

Meredith, Roy, The Face of Robert E. Lee. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1947. 142 pp. Illus. Many likenesses of Robert E. Lee and the circumstances behind them. The text admirably unifies them and though slim, is also an adequate biography in brief.

Miers, Earl Schenck, A Great Life in Brief. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1956. 199 pp. Biblio. index. As the title suggests, Lee in capsule form, but well done. Covers the man and the events that shaped his destiny.

Miller, Frances T., ed. in chief, Photographic History of the Civil War. New York: The Review of Reviews, Co., 1911. 10 Vols. Not essential for this study but a fascinating supplement to official Civil War records.

Mims, Edwin, “General Lee's Place in History,” Outlook, 84 (Dec. 1906), 970.

Montague, Margaret P., “What Did Marse Robert Think,” Atlantic Monthly, 121 (Jun 1918), 732–734.

Powell, Mary G., The History of Old Alexandria. Richmond, Va.: Wm. Byrd Press, Inc., 1928. 358 pp. Illus., appendix. Valuable for setting the scenes of Robert E. Lee's boyhood.

Preston, Walter Creigh, Lee, West Point and Lexington. Yellow Springs, Ohio: The Antioch Press, 1934. 103 pp. Biblio., ref., index, appendix. Of very great help in the details of three neglected phases of Lee's life: cadet, superintendent at West Point, and in Lexington.

Rhodes, Charles Dudley, Robert E. Lee, the West Pointer. Richmond, Va.: Garrett & Massie, 1932. 41 pp. Illus. Excellent biography of Lee, emphasis on, naturally, his career at West Point as student and commandant.

Rosenberger, Francis C., The Virginia Reader. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1948. 575 pp. Index. Writings by Virginians from the founding to the present. Of not because it contains a sketch of R. E. Lee's father and his famous oration at Washington's death.

Rosser, Mrs. Thomas L., Housekeeper and Mothers Manual. Richmond, Va.: Everett Waddey Co., 1895. Has recipe for Lee cake.

Stanard, Mary N., Richmond, Its People and Its Story. Philadelphia and London: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1923. ix, 224 pp. Illus., index. From Jamestown to the twenties, the spirit and personality of Richmond. Something of Lee still remained there (1923).

Tyree, Marion C., Housekeeping in Old Virginia. New York: G. W. Carleton & Co., 1927. Recipes of the old South, notably Lee cake.

Wayland, John W., Robert E. Lee and His Family. Staunton, Va.: McClure Printing Co., 1951. 72 pp. Illus., app., index, maps. Of much less worth than the title would indicate. Sketchy and leaps over years. Useful for correlation with other facts.

Wells, Rosa C., General Lee, a Great Friend of Youth. New York: Vantage Press, 1950. 351 pp. Illus., biblio. Invaluable for this study as it contains some material not found elsewhere. Unfortunately, now out of print and the only copy available in this area is in the Library of Congress.

Whipple, Wayne, The Heart of Lee. Philadelphia: Geo. W. Jacobs & Co., 1918. 224 pp. The worship school of Lee at its worst.

Winston, Robert W., Robert E. Lee. New York: Wm. Morrow & Co., 1934. 413 pp. Illus., maps, app., biblio., index. Excellent and complete coverage in one book, with much new material regarding family. Emphasis on pre-war period. Very helpful.

Wood, Robert C., The Confederate Handbook. New Orleans: The Graham Press, 1900. 127 pp. Illus., advertisements. Statistics on every conceivable aspect of Confederate interest, not excluding the United Daughters of the Confederacy!

Wyeth, John A., Commemorative Address: Robert E. Lee. Published by the New York Sun. Given before the Southern Society of New York on Lee's birthday, Jan. 19, 1906. 22 pp. A testimony to the increasing admiration of Lee by people outside the South.


Joseph, Bea and Charlotte Squires, eds., Biography Index. 5 Vols., New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1957.

Fishwick, Marshall, and Wm. Hollis, Preliminary Checklist of Writings About R. E. Lee, Bibliographical Society of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., 1951. 36 pp., index.

Freeman, Douglas Southall, R. E. Lee, Vols. 2 & 4. New York, London: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1935.

New York Times Index. New York: The New York Times, 1930–1958.

Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature. New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1802–1959.

Swem, Earl Gregg, ed., Virginia Historical Index. 2 Vols., Roanoke, Virginia: The Stone Printing & Mfg. Co., 1934–1936.

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